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LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



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SCHOOL DEVICES 

A BOOK OF 

W 'AYS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR 
TEACHERS 



BY 



EDWARD R: SHAW 

Of the High School, Ycnkers, N. Y. 



WEBB DONNELL 

Of Washington Academy, East Machias, Me. 






NEW YORK 
E. L. KELLOGG & CO. 

1891 



Copyright, 1886 and 1888, by 
EDWARD R. SHAW, 

AND 
WEBB DONNELL. 



PREFACE. 



THIS book has been prepared with the object of 
presenting in compact form a great number of devices 
for bringing freshness and life into the school-room. 

Unless great vigilance is exercised, monotony creeps 
in, and becomes the depressing accompaniment of 
school work. No worker needs more of invention 
than the teacher, yet no other worker has an envi- 
ronment that is so hostile to its development. The 
teacher is reaching down continually to minds below 

him. Day after day spent under these conditions 
clogs invention. 

In recognition of this fact, the great body of progres- 
sive teachers seek to take advantage of the best 
experience of others, adapting to their own needs 
whatever may be deemed suited thereto. In confir- 
mation of this, we point to the great number who are 
subscribers to school periodicals for the express pur- 
pose of obtaining new suggestions which they may 
apply in their own school-rooms. But a school journal 
must cover the whole range of educational work, and, 
therefore, the space devoted to devices must of neces- 



4 PREFACE. 

sity be limited. This book aims to supplement the 
work of the papers by placing in convenient form, for 
constant use at the teacher's desk, the result of much 
experience in making the work of the school-room 
effective and attractive. 

While the device is of undoubted advantage in school 
work, it is important to consider its relative position 
as a factor in education. Some teachers, in their 
efforts to secure attention and make their work at- 
tractive, have unfortunately lost sight of the proper 
balance that should be maintained between that which 
is novel and the fundamental principles which under 
lie all teaching ; and have come to believe, erroneously, 
that good teaching requires one to be continually seek- 
ing for new and striking ways in which to present 
ideas, substituting brilliancy and variety for the pains- 
taking drill which the majority of teachers find essen- 
tial to success in their work. A device should be used 
as a condiment to add spice to the constant iteration 
and reiteration of first principles. 

In addition, however, to that which is to be regarded 
as partaking purely of the character of a device, there 
will be found in the book a great number of ways and 
suggestions which will be of especial advantage to 
those who are just entering upon the work of teaching. 
These, having had no previous experience, must rely 
to a great extent on that of others. While the idea of 
teaching by any given formula is not to be advocated, 
yet it is believed that in a multitude of suggestions 
for accomplishing a given result, the teacher can 



PREFACE 5 

select that which seems best suited to his own 
needs. 

We have inserted a large number of devices upon 
many topics, not with the idea that they should all be 
used in any particular case, but to afford a wide range 
for selection. 

While the greater part of the book is fresh and 
original, having been gathered from our own experi- 
ence and from the experience of many other teachers 
whose work has fallen under our observation, we take 
pleasure in giving credit to the numerous school peri- 
"bdicals of the country from whose pages we have 
drawn devices which seemed worthy of permanent 
preservation. In most instances, whatever has been 
selected has been recast to adapt it more fully to our 
use. 

YONKEBS, N. Y., May, 1886. 



The author of this volume has recently published a 
helpful book for teachers, entitled "The National Question 
Book." It contains 6,000 questions and answers on 
twenty-two different branches of study. It is a general 
review of the common and high school studies. It is 
carefully GRADED into grades corresponding to those 
into which teachers are usually classed. It is a useful 
reference book for every teacher and private library. 
Many thousands of copies have already been sold. It is 
by far the most helpful and accurate book of questions 
published. Beautifully bound in buckram. Price $1.50 
net, postpaid. First-class agents wanted to introduce it. 
Address E. L. KELLOGG & G0. 9 New York or Chicago. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

Language . . 9 

CHAPTER II. 
Geography - . . 42 

CHAPTER III. 
Spelling .62 

CHAPTER IV, 
Reading . . . 74 

CHAPTER V. 
Arithmetic. 85 

CHAPTER VI. 
Personal Suggestions 132 

CHAPTER VII. 
Schoolroom Suggestions 144 



8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

PAGE 

Outside the Schoolroom 174 

CHAPTER IX. 
History . . . . 180 

CHAPTER X. 
Physiology . . . 200 

CHAPTER XI. 
Seat-work .215 

CHAPTER XII. 
Drawing 224 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Penmanship and Apparatus 237 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Bible Readings .......... 245 to 278 



OF THE 

SCHOOL DEVICES. 

'- _ 

CHAPTER I. 

LANGUAGE. 

Mind-Pictures. Try to set the little people's im- 
agination at work, even when they are very young. 
It is sure to be pleasant work to the small dreamer. 
Let him listen to some simple but pretty word-picture, 
and then ask him to paint it over again for you in 
this wise, perhaps : 

"Now, little folks, shut your eyes, and in a minute 
be all ready to tell me just what the eyes in your mind 
are seeing." Then read something like this: " AU night 
the little blossom held up its cup to catch the dew." 
"The robin and the bluebird, piping loud, 
Filled all the blossoming orchard with their glee." 
" I see the lights of the village 

Gleam through the rain and the mist. " 
" Silent came the gathering darkness, 

Bringing with it sleep and rest; 
Save a little bird was singing 
Near her leafy nest." 

"By ten o'clock the sun shone brightly against the 
window-glass, and the warm fire within helped make 
the window-sill comfortable ; and here all five of the 
birds perched, thus getting the full force of the sun's 
rays." 

Any such bits of pictures may be used, and very soon 
the little pupil will be able to describe them. Help 
him to do this in simple words, as if he were looking 
at the picture in very truth. The exercise may be 
varied by introducing some nursery rhyme, as 



10 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

" There was a little, very little, 

Quiet little man, 
He wore a little overcoat 

The color of the tan." 

A Way to Prepare Pictures for Young Pu- 
pils. If you use pictures for language work in the 
lowest grades, an excellent plan is to paste the pictures 
upon stiff paper or pasteboard, leaving an edge or bor- 
der around the engraving. On this border write such 
words as you think the pupil will probably wish to 
use, but which are beyond his knowledge to spell. In 
this manner a difficulty to the pupil's composition is 
removed ; for if unaided in this way, he works under 
a restriction that discourages, because the work is 
simply too hard. 

Supplying the Proper Word. In the following 
phrases let the pupil supply the proper words; as, 
" A of gloves," a pair of gloves: 



A of ducks. 

A of mice. 

A of bees. 

A of cattle. 

A of birds. 

A of horses. 



A of partridges. 

A of oxen. 

A of needles. 

A of milk. 

A of books. 

A of paper. 



A Language Lesson. Put these sentences upon 
the board and have the pupils fill in the blanks. If 
there is not time during school hours to write the sen- 
tences on the board, transcribe them upon blank cards 
and let the pupils copy these upon their slates. While 
it may take longer to write the cards, they can be used 



LANGUAGE. H 

again and again, and taken to another school, should 
the teacher change his field of labor. 

In these sentences supply the missing pronoun: 

(1) Father drove Martha and to school. 

(2) Let James and carry it. 

(3) May John and get a pail of water ? 

(4) They have all gone but . 

(5) boys are studying Latin. 

(6) The teacher said girls must come early to- 
night. 

(7) The difference between you and is that you 

have two study periods a day, while I have none. 

(8) To did you give it? 

(9) Who borrowed my slate? . 

(10) Kalph is older than . 

(11) do you wish to see? 

In the following supply the omitted verb : 

(1) I am more tired than you ; will you let me 

down on the lounge? 

(2) Yesterday I on the sofa all the morning. 

(3) Is the table yet? 

(4) Fetch a chair for Mr. Smith, Jane. down, 

please, sir. 

(5) the magazine on the table and let it there. 

(6) The dog came in and down before the table. 

(7) He has away. 

(8) He was ing on the bed when I came home. 

(9) The carpenter has the posts on the ground, 

where he is to build the fence. 

Let the work be brought to the recitation, and the 



12 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

sentences read, the class deciding when the correct 
form is used. 

Weekly Plan of Language Work for Lower 
Grammar Grades. Monday Letter-writing; drill 
in naming parts of speech. 

Tuesday Written reproduction of some selection; 
drill in writing plurals and possessives. 

Wednesday Reading of short poems; practice in 
talking ; children telling the story of the poem. 

Thursday Memory exercise; recitation of quota- 
tions from authors ; principal element of a sentence. 

Friday Re views. 

Writing Ordinals. The proper form for writing 
first, second, third, fourth, etc., is 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 
and not 1^, 2*?. d , 3^, 4^; because 4th is as really fourth 
as the full word. To show that this is true, let 
the teacher write on the board 5, and ask the pupils 
to read it. They will say "Five." In another place 
write "th," and ask them to pronounce it also. In 
still another place write u 5th," and ask them to read 
it. They must say " Fifth." If it be true to write 
fifth, " 5th;" fifteenth, 15th, we must also write as one 
word 1st, 2nd, 3rd. 

Correcting Bad English. A valuable lesson in 
grammar can be made by showing to the class the 
errors which are most commonly made in speaking. 
Give a sentence containing the word in question, 
pointing out the error, and write the correct form of 
the word on the board. 

Many people say " I done it," for " I did it;" " I have 



LANGUAGE. 13 

got it," for "I have it;" "He ain't there," for "He 
isn't there;" " I hain't got none," for "I haven't any." 
The verbs lay and lie are commonly interchanged. 
After teaching the inflection of these verbs, it will 
assist the pupil in using them correctly if he be made 
to see that lay must have an object, expressed or 
understood, and that lie has not. Now, if he be taught 
to consider in using the words whether an object is 
expressed or understood, he will soon come to use 
these verbs properly, and will readily see that such a 
sentence as "The boat lays at her moorings" is wrong, 
for the reason that the boat cannot lay anything. 
Other improper usages of words will occur to the 
teacher to be used in this connection. 

For Beginners in Composition. For composi- 
tion work with small pupils select simple topics, and 
such as are sure to be familiar to them. The follow- 
ing questions are suggested which they may answer 
in the form of a narrative : 

At what time did you start for school ? 

What did you bring with you ? 

Who came with you ? 

In what did you carry your books ? 

Tell what you can about the books. 

What did you see on your way ? 

Whom did you meet ? 

What did you say to them, and what replies did 
they make ? 

Whom did you find in the school-house ? 

What did you do after you came into the school- 
room ? 



14 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

To such questions as the following, as extended 
answers as possible should be required : 

What is found inside an apple when it is cut open ? 

What is the material of a little girl's apron ? 

Of what are shoes made ? 

Who makes the leather, and from what is it made ? 

What covers the outside of a tree, and what is its 
usual color ? 

Of what are baskets made ? 

Describe the different parts of an apple. 

Tell all you can about the colors of flowers. 

How many holidays are there in a year ? Name 
them. 

Mention the different things that grow in your 
garden. 

What animals like to eat apples ? 

What do animals eat besides apples ? 

Word-developing. Say to the class, "There is a 
man standing on a small island in the middle of a 
lake. How will he get to the shore ?" Some will 
answer, "He will swim;" others, "He will row over 
in a boat." Ask them to describe the manner of row- 
ing, and let a figure of an oar be drawn on the board. 
Write ' ' oars, " i ' rowed, " ' ( swim, " upon the board. i l If 
the man stops rowing, what will happen to the boat ?" 
"It will float," "It will drift." Ask for the full 
meaning of "float" and "drift," and write them on 
the board. "What will happen if the boat gets into 
the rapids?" "Upset," will be answered. This may 
be continued until a sufficient number of words have 
been developed. Let each word be correctly spelled 
and pronounced, and accurately defined. Let each 



LANGUAGE. 15 

pupil in turn form a sentence with one or more of 
these words in it, and write it on the board. Finally, 
tell the class to write out the whole story which has 
been outlined, and bring it to be read at the next 
recitation. 

An Easy Exercise in Composition. Having 
spoken to a class about the senses and what they tell 
us, direct the class to write out what their senses tell 
them about the following things : an apple, a knife, a 
lead-pencil, a bottle of ink, a flower, a clock, a piece of 
chalk, a box, a piece of charcoal, etc. 

Compositions from Pictures. If pupils are 
asked to bring to school all the pictures they can get 
from books and papers, the teacher will thus obtain 
much good material for composition work. Take the 
pictures, trim them close to the edge of the engrav- 
ing so as to cut off all reading, then paste them upon 
pieces of pasteboard, and they are in condition for 
long wear. Distribute them to pupils and ask them to 
write what they can about the picture. When a pupil 
has written about a picture, let him write his name 
upon the back of it, so that it may not be given him a 
second time. 

Plan for Oral Composition. Cany to the class 
some entertaining book either a story or a description 
of travel and have a page or two read by one of the 
class. The book is to be closed at this point and 
another asked to tell what has been read. The rest 
may correct any errors either in language or in the 
statement of what has been read. When a sufficient 



16 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

amount has been produced, ask all the members of the 
class to write out what they have heard and bring it 
in the next day. After some practice in this kind of 
work, they may be allowed to take the main points of 
the story or description and add any thoughts of their 
own which are appropriate to the subject. 

Debating Exercises. Select some subject within 
the capacity of the pupils, and appoint a number to 
debate it. If the number be six, assign three to the 
affirmative and three to the negative side. Let a jury 
of scholars be chosen, who, when all the arguments 
are presented, shall decide for the one side or the 
other. It will be well to have the arguments pre- 
sented in alternate order; first, one upon the affirma- 
tive side, followed by one upon the negative. 

Select subjects that are of practical importance and 
of general interest, and in regard to which the pupils 
can readily gain information either by inquiry or read- 
ing. 

Language-drill in Every Lesson. Make every 
lesson a drill in language. Whatever be the topic, 
correct all errors in grammar and pronunciation. En- 
courage your pupils to choose carefully and wisely the 
form in which they state either questions or answers. 
Wise guidance in this direction will bear rich fruit in 
later years. 

Letter-writing. In connection with the work in 
grammar and rhetoric, see that your pupils have 
plenty of practice in writing letters. Probably in no 
branch are pupils found so deficient, on leaving school, 



LANGUAGE. 17 

as in this. Have frequent exercises in writing busi- 
ness letters, and in these see that the following points 
are observed: (a) They should be brief and to the 
point. (6) They should contain nothing but matter 
relating to the business in question, (c) Nothing 
should be written in such a manner as to allow a 
chance of misunderstanding, (d) The date, name, and 
address of the writer should be plainly written. 

In ordinary letters of friendship, while it is absurd 
to give rules, it is of advantage to bring out the points 
given below. Pupils frequently have the erroneous 
idea that an unusual and formal style must be used in 
letter-writing, thus destroying the simplicity and nat- 
uralness of their productions. 

1. Letters should be written in a conversational 
style, and this can be obtained by writing just as one 
would speak to another, face to face. 

2. Unless the letter is to a very intimate friend, the 
writer should say but little of himself. 

3. Let it be remembered that in writing a letter one 
is placing in black and white that which may stand 
for years. Care should therefore be exercised that 
nothing be written which one might afterwards regret. 

Matter for Letters. 1. Write a letter to a class- 
mate who left school a week ago, relating whatever of 
interest has occurred in school for a few days past. 

2. Write a letter to a friend describing how you won 
in one of your games. 

3. Write a letter to a friend inviting her to a game 
of tennis or croquet to-morrow afternoon. 

4. Write a letter in the third person inviting Mrs. 
Kate Wildey to dinner. 



18 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

5. Write a letter to your mother, supposing her to 
be away from home for a week. 

6. Write a letter to a friend regretting that you 
were unable to drive over to see him last Saturday. 

Forms of Business Letters. Give your pupils 
such forms of letters as one would use in many differ- 
ent kinds of business. Such, for instance, as the fol- 
lowing to a publishing house : 

Providence, R I., Dec. 5, 1885. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
Gentlemen, 

Enclosed find four dollars ($4), for which 
please send the Atlantic Monthly for one year to my 
address. 

Yours truly, 

J. L. PARSONS. 

Papers Written from Recitation Notes. - 
Not only should the pupil be required to reproduce 
from material placed before him or related by the 
teacher, but he should be required to take notes in the 
recitation and elaborate them, reading them the next 
day in class as called upon. If the pupil is studying 
science, let him write out a full report of experiments 
made by himself or by the teacher. These may be il- 
lustrated by drawings of the apparatus used. It will 
be well to allow illustrations in any of the composi- 
tions if the writer is capable of producing them. For 
such work unruled paper should be used. 

Equivalent Forms of Expression. As a drill in 
language, ask your class to change a given expression 
into one containing the same idea, but set forth in dif- 
ferent language. Ask them to express dry, matter-of 



LANGUAGE. 



19 



fact prose in a lively, poetic form ; and, in general, let 
them take any sentence and express it in a different 
way. Give them newspaper-cuttings to express in a 
clearer, more incisive manner. They will thus get in 
the habit of choosing the form of speech which will 
most accurately express the meaning desired. 

Device for Use of Capitals. Let the pupils 
of the grammar grades copy in their note-books this 
condensed plan of the rules for the use of capitals : 







s 



jr 



20 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Excerpts to Write Out from Memory. In the 
newspapers will be found many short stories or de- 
scriptions, well written and entertaining, which it will 
pay to cut out and paste upon cards for use in repro- 
duction. Let a card he handed to each student, allow 
three or four minutes in which to read the printed 
sketch, and then collect them. After which require 
each one to write out from memory what he has read. 
Below are given excerpts to show what is meant: 

HOW THE JINGLET GETS INSIDE. 

The making of sleigh-bells is quite an art. The little iron 
ball is too big to be put in through the holes in the bell, and 
yet it is inside. How did it get there? The little iron ball is 
called the " jinglet." When you shake the sleigh-bell it jingles. 
In making the bell this jinglet is put inside a little ball of mud, 
just the shape of the inside of the bell. This mud ball with 
the jinglet inside is placed in the mould of the outside, and the 
metal is poured in, which fills up the space between the ball 
and the mould. When the mould is taken off, you see a sleigh- 
bell, but it will not ring, as it is full of dirt. The hot metal 
dries this, so that it can be shaken out. When this has been 
done the little iron jinglet will be found inside the bell, and 
the bell will ring. It took a great many years to think out the 
way to make a sleigh-bell. The Christian Union. 

SAVING A LIFE. 

One day last winter, '83-'84, when the mercury was down 
somewhere in the forties below, an open sleigh -stage was mak- 
ing its way along a mountain road between two Montana 
towns. The only passengers were a woman and her young 
child. They were scantily clad for the rigorous weather, and 
the woman removed one of her wraps to protect the child. The 



LANGUAGE. 21 

driver discerned that she was growing drowsy, and warned her 
of the deadly peril of falling asleep. It was of no use, nor did 
the vigorous shaking he gave her serve to keep her awake. 
Finally the driver seized her, threw her out into the road, and 
drove off with the child at a rapid pace. This last expedient 
was successful. Awakened by the shock of the fall, the 
woman saw the stage disappearing with her child. Her mater- 
nal instincts w r ere aroused. She ran after the stage as fast as 
she could; the driver slackened up a little, but did not stop till 
he saw that the poor mother was thoroughly warmed by the 
exercise. Her life was saved. An hour later the stage reached 
a station, where buffalo robes were obtained to protect her 
against the deadly cold for the remainder of the journey. The 
Youth's Companion. 

Require Plan in Composition-writing. In 

composition work the pupil should be taught to plan 
his work in a logical way. He should first make an 
outline of the subject, arranging the topics in divi- 
sions and subdivisions. After some practice of this 
sort, upon selecting a subject he will instinctively be- 
gin to analyze it, picking out the chief points, and the 
different ways in which these chief points may be 
treated. 

To Exercise the Imagination. The following 
are designed for written exercises. The title, direc- 
tions, and hints may be written upon the board. Each 
pupil should write the title properly upon his paper 
and then, with the aid of the suggestions given, relate 
the imaginary details. 

1. The adventures of a five-cent piece. 

Tell where and when it was coined. Who first ob- 



22 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

tained it from the taint. How many times it was spent, 
and for what purposes. Where it is now. 

2. The life of a canary-bird. 

Imagine a canary telling all that has happened to 
him from the first day of his life. Where he has lived. 
What he has done. What he thinks of some of the 
people he has seen. What he likes to do. What he 
would do if he could. 

3. A family of five people at tea. 

Imagine five people at tea. Describe and name 
them. Tell what they are talking about. Tell some 
of the things they say. Tell where they go as they 
leave the room. 

4. A brook. 

Imagine a pretty little brook, winding about among 
the meadows and through the woods. Tell where 
it starts, and where it expects to go to. What it 
finds in its way, and why it is so crooked. What 
flowers grow upon its banks. What it does for the 
flowers that grow on its banks. Tell about a big 
shady pool in one place and what lives there. Tell 
about a shallow place where the sun shines, and the 
stones at the bottom of this place. How people cross 
the brook; what animals do when they come to it. 
What happened once at a certain place. What makes 
it grow larger ; where it goes. 

5. What I should like to do. 

Imagine that you are now able to do just as you 
please; state what you would. do. Give particulars 
and reasons for your choice. 



LANGUAGE. 23 

Suggestions about Local Subjects for Com- 
positions. There is, in almost every locality, some 
folk-lore, legend, or tradition. Let the pupils hunt up 
these and embody them in a paper. "Historical 
Hereabouts" is a good subject for such a paper. For 
an instance of tradition, say to the class, l * I have heard 
a story of a hermit who used to live about here years 
ago. Many things are told of him which are interest- 
ing. Now, I wish you to inquire here and there, learn 
all you can about him, and make an interesting paper 
to read to the class or school." 

Again, the teacher may say, " You have seen apiece 
of marble in the rough, or after it has been sawed, and 
also after it has been polished. The way in which this 
is done is very interesting. Who would like to go to 
the marble cutter's, watch the work, and then write 
a description of it ?" 

A Letter Written upon Blackboard by All 
the Class. Send a pupil to the board and tell him to 
begin a letter. After he has written a few sentences, 
send another to add a new thought, and then another 
and another. The last pupil is told to close the letter. 

Choice of Words. To create the habit of choosing 
the best word to express an idea or describe an object, 
place upon the board sentences arranged as in the fol- 
lowing, and ask the pupil to choose the proper word. 
The examples given may be extended by the teacher : 
C nice ) 

1. She has < agreeable > manners. 

( graceful ) 

(lovely ) 

2. She has a ^pretty > dress. 

( elegant } 



24 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

C some ) 

3. He is < somewhat > better. 

( much ) 

(fearfully ) 

4. The weather is < terribly > cold. 

( unusually ) 



5. She looks very] 
6- Almost j 
7 ' Itisa {rSly }^ce book. 



9. This is { ^e^y \ said than done. 

10. Mine is not \ ff [ good as his. 
( s ) 

{magnificent ] 
ndid day. 
beautiful j 

12. Her dress looks j ^ y 

Order of Criticism. The following order of criti- 
cism for written work may be used by teachers and 
by students in deciding upon the merits and defects of 
compositions. It will be seen that the first point to be 
noticed in any given article is the thought, taken as a 
whole. It will be apparent that this is of more conse- 
quence than the spelling and the use of capitals. 
While these points are important, the student should 
be made to feel that in this work he must have a clear 



LANGUAGE. 25 

conception of the thought before beginning to write, 
and that this will be first taken into consideration by 
the teacher. Other points follow in the order of im- 
portance. 

I. The thought. 
II. Order of thought. 
III. Expression, or use of language. 

1. Use of words. 

2. Style. 

3. Grouping of sentences. 

4. Capital letters. 

5. Spelling. 

6. General appearance. 

Frequently it is profitable to collect all the essays, 
assign them to different members of the class, asking 
each to read the essay and write a criticism upon it. 
If the criticism is unduly severe and captious, hand 
both essay and criticism to another student who will 
give a just estimate of both. 

Plan for Rapid Correction of Compositions. 

Where a large number of impromptu compositions, 
or reproductions from memory, are handed in every 
few days, and it is found difficult to go over each one 
carefully, it is well to use the following plan. Select 
at random eight or ten of the papers and correct them, 
noting carefully the characteristic errors. Bring these 
before the class and make clear your corrections. 
These corrections will probably apply to a large part 
of the papers. At the next writing of compositions, 
take eight or ten papers belonging to other pupils and 



26 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

continue in this way until each pupil's work has passed 
under your eye. 

To Fold and File Essays. Essays should be 
folded lengthwise and placed in a pile so that the cen- 
tre of the page, where the fold conies, shall be upon 
the right hand. Then let the name be written across 
the top, and a rubber band placed about them. Any 
desired essay can be quickly found by running over 
the bunch with the right hand, each essay being 
raised entire, as there are no edges of leaves on the 
right side. In obliging pupils to follow this plan, the 
teacher trains them to file papers as business men do. 

Assigning a Subject for a Composition. 
Often a subject may be invested with interest and 
given a strong start by some such introduction as 
the following: u The subject I wish to assign for the 
next composition is about a wonderful instrument. 
In all the range of inventions since the world began, 
not one can be compared with this. The more you 
think of it and study it, the more strongly will you be 
impressed with the great skill of the inventor, and the 
more plainly will you see the many marvellous uses to 
which it is adapted, feiid how much has depended on 
it during all time. The subject is (the teacher here 
writes upon the blackboard) The Human Hand. 

Character Sketches. Select from fiction or 
travels a few sketches of character and read these to 
the class for illustrations. As soon as the class has a 
clear idea of what is meant by a character sketch, 
say that for the next composition you shall expect 



LANGUAGE. 27 

from each a character sketch. They are not to 
name the person, but may take any character they 
know. Of course, the teacher will use time enough in 
reading the character sketches, and in speaking of 
them, to show the class that in their first attempts 
they should select some person whose characteristics 
are strongly marked. 

I II ustrati ve Syntax. Instead of giving pupils false 
syntax to correct, vary the work by writing on the 
board as many of the rules of syntax as you wish to 
give for a lesson, and ask the pupils to write sentences 
to illustrate these. If, for instance, the rules given in- 
clude these, " Two or more singular subjects connected 
by or or nor require a singular verb," " Two or more 
singular subjects connected by and require a plural 
verb," the pupil should write on his slate such sen- 
tences as the following: " Neither gold nor silver 
was found in the mine," " Either John or Henry is 
going," " Mary and Susan are going," "The sun and 
the moon were visible." 

A Talk on Language. To break the monotony 
of the usual work and at the same time to increase the 
knowledge of the pupils, give a short talk on language, 
such as a teacher gave one morning. He said : "Now, 
if you will give me your attention for a few moments, 
we will talk over some of the mistakes that people are 
apt to make in conversation. For instance, I heard 
one of the scholars say to another, as I came into the 
schoolroom, Til go a little ways with you.' He 
probably meant that he would go a little way, or a 
short distance, with his companion. I also heard one 



28 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

of the girls say to another, 'He don't know.' Will 
any one tell me the full form of 'don't?' Several 
voices, 'Do not.' Very well, 'He do not know' does 
not sound correct. What should have been said? 
4 He doesn't know.' 

"I frequently hear one pupil say to another, 'It's 
time we went.' Went denotes past time. What is 
the proper thing to say? l IPs time to </o,' or, better, 
4 It is time we should go.' " 

The teacher continued to show in the same way the 
incorrectness of such expressions as, This is the longest 
(referring to two) ; I feel badly; Head the last two 
verses ; Quite a number ; I would as leave go ; Where 
have you been to ? He ain't got none. 

A Grammar Lesson. Many incorrect forms of 
speech are here given which should be brought to the 
attention of the pupils, and the proper corrections 
made. Let the pupils make a memorandum of the 
corrections in their note-book : 

A number of knives and forks were taken. He told 
John and /, when a person acts like that, they ought 
to be punished. He said it was him. Everybody has 
a right to their opinion. These kind of apples are not 
sweet. I am going to lay down. She set down on the 
chair. He would have went. She done right. They 
hadn't ought to. I have got one. I says. He re- 
peated it again. He took it off of the line. He or his 
son have gone. I don't know but what I shall do it. 
She seldom ever went out. He has lots of pictures. 
The two first verses. He is the largest of the two. He 
enjoys poor health. Was you speaking ? Not as I 
know of. Have you shook the carpet ? They have 



LANGUAGE. 29 

broke the stick. I see him two days ago. Give me 
them grapes. If I was rich, I would go. Seldom or 
ever. He is known through the United States. Two 
pair of gloves. I should think that John was the 
oldest. This house to let. The stick is twelve foot 
long. He is living at Boston. Such another man. 
They covered it over. A new pair of shoes. Com- 
bined together. Almost no money. Somewheres in 
the country. I had rather go. A couple of pounds. 
I am short in comparison to you. The meat was all 
eaten up. I fell on the floor. He is averse to it. 
That ain't. Nobody else saw him. The other one. 
They mutually agreed. Down on him.. They were all 
drownded. I called to price your goods. His actions 
admit of no apology. He left his books to home. 

Device for Building Up Conjugation of the 
Verb. If the pupil can be made to see the principle 
by which the various tenses of the verb are built up, 
he will be able to apply it readily in forming the re- 
quired part of any verb. If the verb " love" is taken, 
begin with the present, and show that the simple form 
of the verb (love) is found in all the persons except the 
second and third persons singular, which add "st" 
and "s" respectively. 

Next show that in the past or imperfect tense the 
past participle (loved) is used in all the forms but the 
second person singular, which adds to this " st." 

Tell the class that the sign of the future is " shall " 
or "-will;" but when " shall " is used for the first per- 
son, "will" must be used for the second and third 
persons; and when " will" is used for the first person, 
"shall " must occur in the second and third. 



30 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Then make it understood that the perfect, pluper- 
fect, and future-perfect tenses end with the past parti- 
ciple; and that the sign of the perfect is "have," as, 
" I have loved," etc. ; that the sign of the pluperfect is 
u had," and that of the future perfect is u shall have" 
or "will have;" hut that when "shall have" is used in 
the first person, the forms of " will have" must occur 
in the second and third, and that when " will have" is 
used in the first person, ' ' shall have" must occur in 
the second and third. 

State that the signs of the potential mood are 
"may," "can," "must," for the present; "might," 
" could," " would," "should," for the past, to be used 
with the simple verb "love;" as, "I may love," or "I 
might love ;" and that have added to the signs of the 
present give the perfect, and to the signs of the past 
give the pluperfect; as, " may have," "might have." 

Show them that if is the sign of the subjunctive mood, 
to be used in the present with the simple verb "love," 
and in the past with the past participle, and that the 
second and third persons singular do not add " st" and 
"s." 

The infinitive mood should be made clear to the class 
as introduced by the preposition "to." 

After finishing the active voice, and explaining that 
this represents the subject of the verb as acting, 
show that the passive voice is formed by placing after 
the required tense of the verb "to be" the past parti- 
ciple of the verb to be made passive, and explain what 
the word passive means. 

The pupils should practise writing out different 
verbs on slate or paper, following these rules. 

In using these suggestions, the teacher will give one 



LANGUAGE. 81 

tense at a time, letting that grow before the class by 
writing the forms upon the board, and insisting upon 
their thorough committal to memory before the next 
tense is written out. Each day review all the tenses 
previously built up, and drill upon the signs of each 
tense. To test a class's knowledge of the way in 
which the passive voice is built up, direct pupils to 
write out the passive voice of some verb not met with 
in all the persons of the passive, as, for instance, the 
verb eat. 

The Infinitive Mood. In teaching the use and 
government of the infinitive give such a sentence as, 
" We strive to save," in which is given an example of 
a finite verb and one not finite, or infinite. Show that 
a verb which agrees with its subject is a limited verb, 
and one which has no subject, as save, is unlimited. 
Show that finite and infinite are the same as limited 
and unlimited. In this way the pupils will understand 
what is meant by a finite verb and an infinitive. Show 
that in parsing an infinitive as governed by the prepo- 
sition fo, it is regarded in the light of a noun. 

Shall and Will. In the first person will expresses 
an intention or a promise, as, "I will go," meaning I 
intend or promise to go. Witt should not be used as a 
question with the first person ; as, u Will I come?" 

Will in the second person may be used as a com- 
mand, or simply to foretell what will occur; as, " You 
will come with me." "You will do nothing of the 
kind." As a question, will in the second person asks 
the intention of the person ; as, " Will you do it? " 

Will in the third person declares or foretells; as, 
" He will be here." 



32 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Shall in the first person declares or foretells, with 
no reference to wish; as, *'I shall he present." 

As a question, shall in the first person makes an in- 
quiry, or asks direction; as, u Shall I find you there?" 
" Shall I go?" that is, decide for me. 

Shall in the second person expresses authority, and 
therefore promises, commands, or threatens. 

Examples of Correct Usage. Expressing future 
action : I shall ride to the city to-morrow. Expressing 
determination: You shall go. Consulting the judg- 
ment of another: Shall I go with him? Inquiry con- 
cerning another's intention : At what price shall you 
sell? Inquiry concerning another's desire : Will you 
have an orange? Inquiry concerning future action: 
Will he go with us? 

Let the following blanks be filled with shall or mil. 

I leave for Boston next week. I have my 

own way. You be punished. They reach 

here at noon. 1 put coal on the fire ? 1 write 

to your brother? he come with us? How 1 

solve this problem? you have more coffee? 

you write your name here? At what place you 

buy it? Where you be to-morrow ? we have 

a good time? we see you this evening? When 

you begin? you have a few of them? If he 

goes, you? What you do about it? your 

father punish you? Pupils - - please write their 

names. We do it. They find it hard. he 

be permitted to go? I be in time? When 

we finish our work? 

Matter for a Talk on Words. Use the follow- 
ing material for a talk on words, taking up a few 
words at a lesson. 



LANGUAGE. 33 

The subject is capable of being expanded to a 
greater extent than we have space to show here, but 
the teacher, with this material to start with, can 
select other words and carry the subject of derivation 
to a greater length. In connection with this show 
your class how words are built up by prefixes and 
suffixes, and explain the meaning which these give to 
words. 

CUEFEW. From French words meaning cover up 
your fire. A bell was formerly rung at eight o'clock, 
when people were expected to retire. 

TARIFF. From Tarifa, a Moorish fortress in 
Southern Spain, from which position the Moors used 
to levy taxes on passing ships for the merchandise 
which they transported, 

GOD'S ACRE. A burial-ground, referring to the idea 
of the harvest which the Deity will garner at the 
resurrection of the dead. 

TANTALIZE. From " Tantalus," who was doomed to 
be continually in sight of water but not allowed to 
touch it. 

PASTOR. From the Latin word, meaning a shepherd. 

LUNACY. From Luna, the moon, a word kindred 
with moonshine, or folly. 

CAMBRIC. From Canibray, a place where this kind 
of cloth was first made. 

TRIVIAL. From Latin words meaning three roads. 
That is, such talk as one hears on the corners of streets. 

SINCERE. From Latin words meaning without wax; 
that is, furniture whose defects were not concealed by 
filling with wax. 

ATONEMENT. At-one-ment, showing the united rela- 
tion of God and man. 
3 



34 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

GOOD-BYE. " God be wf ye." 

TOPSY-TURVY. " Topside t'other way." 

SIERRA. Saw -like. Referring to the jagged appear- 
ance of the tops of these mountains. 

MISERY. From miser, a word meaning wretched. 

METHODIST. A name applied to the founders of the 
sect who were methodical in their devotions. 

PAPER. From the Egyptian papyrus, which was 
used for writing purposes. 

DAHLIA. From Dahl, a Swede who first cultivated 
the plant. 

STENTORIAN. From Stentor, a loud-voiced Homeric 
orator. 

SURNAME. From words denoting a name in addition. 

Surnames. The subject of surnames affords mate- 
rial for an interesting talk on words. Explain to your 
class that at one time it was customary for people to 
have hut one name ; finally, a common word was used 
to designate a particular clan or family. 

Show how certain names may have arisen from 
marked peculiarities in those to whom they were ap- 
plied, as Longfellow, Blackman, Eeed (Bed), Brown, 
White, and Gray. When such characteristic names 
were used up, new names were sought from various 
sources, from animals, as Wolfe, Lyons; and from 
natural objects, as Stone, Sand; from adjectives, as 
Strong, Swift, Wise, Kich. Point out the fact that 
the Scotch Mac, and the Welsh Ap, and the Norman 
Fitz, mean the son of; thus, MacDougal means the son 
of Dougal, or Douglass; Fitzhugh, the son of Hugh. 

Substituting Words. Write a short selection 
which may he taken from the reading books, upon the 



LAN&UAGR 35 

blackboard, underscoring certain words. Require the 
pupils to copy the selection, using some other word or 
words in the place of those underscored, but preserv- 
ing the sense; e.g.: 

" While my companions were seeking a suitable 
spot for camping that night, I improved the little day- 
light that was left in climbing the mountain alone. 
We were in a deep and narrow ravine, sloping up to 
the clouds at an angle of nearly forty-five degrees, and 
hemmed in by walls of rock, which were at first cov- 
ered with low trees, then with impenetrable thickets 
of scraggy birches." 

While my comrades were searching for a pleasant 
place for pitching the tents that night, I employed the 
short time which remained before sunset in ascending 
the mountain by myself. We were in a deep gorge of 
little extent, inclining up to the clouds at an angle of 
nearly forty-five degrees, and pinned in by immense 
heaps of stone, which were at first overspread with 
small trees, then with impenetrable thickets of scraggy 
birches. 

Changing Words. Change the italicised words 
to others of opposite meaning, and those in small cap- 
itals to others of same meaning. 

1. Discharge the young man. 

2. Never ATTEMPT self-praise. 

3. The SITUATION is secure. 

4. DISLODGE the impudent RASCAL. 

5. INFORM me how to cheer him. 

6. EXALT the broad principle. 

7. Do not GIVE PUZZLING questions. 

8. The just JUDGMENT is rendered. 

9. RECTIFY your mistakes. 



36 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

10. Avoid the DIFFICULT WAY. 

11. The weather is intolerable. 

12. The TEACHING encouraged rebellion. 

Choosing the Right Word. Put two or three 
of these sentences on the blackboard each day. Re- 
quire the pupils to write out the correct statements, 
and bring them to the class for the teacher to inspect. 

1. A wise ruler (exceeds, accedes) to the demands of 
the (populace, populous). 

2. The Zuyder Zee was formed by an (irruption, 
eruption) of the Atlantic Ocean. 

3. The cause invariably (precedes, proceeds) the 
(affect, effect). 

4. A wise man (accepts, excepts) good (advice, ad- 
vise). 

5. We know in part and we (prophecy, prophesy) in 
part. Bible. 

6. The (medal, meddle) bore an (ingenious, ingenu- 
ous) (devise, device). 

7. (Great, grate) character is as rare a thing as 
(great, grate) (genus, genius). Lowell. 

8. The three weird (profits, prophets) on the heath. 
Irving. 

9. Vines clustered round the lofty (pillows, pillars). 
Hans Andersen. 

10. In (sculptor, sculpture) (exercised, exorcised) his 
happy skill. Dry den. 

Drill upon Forms in Letter- writing. Draw a 
diagram of an envelope on the blackboard, and let the 
class draw the same on their slates; then direct the 
diagram -envelope to some person, the pupils directing 
theirs in the same manner. Call particular attention 



LANGUAGE. 37 

to correct punctuation. Let the class direct half a 
dozen or more letters, till they can do so properly. In 
the same way teach how to begin and end a letter. 
For further drill in letter-writing let the pupils write : 

(1) Letters of friendship to the teacher or to each 
other. 

(2) A neat circular to be sent to customers who are 
behind with their payments, requesting an immediate 
settlement. 

(3) An advertisement to a newspaper for a book- 
keeper one used to the dry -goods business preferred. 

(4) An advertisement describing and locating sev- 
eral houses for sale and to let, and stating prices. 

(5) A telegraph despatch, not exceeding ten words, 
ordering five cases of prints and two cases of dress- 
goods, to be sent by express. 

Examine these letters, pointing out and correcting 
mistakes, and commending wherever possible. 

Lessons on the Agreement of Verb and 
Subject. 

i. 

The wolves are in the woods. 

The seal is found in the Arctic ocean. 

Scissors are made of steel. 

Eich salt mines have been found in Western New 
York. 

Edison has invented many useful things. 

In these sentences is is used with a singular or a 
plural noun? 

Is has used with a singular or a plural noun? 

Is are used with a singular or a plural noun? 

Is have used with a singular or a plural noun? 

Is and has must be used with singular subjects. 



38 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Are and have must be used with plural subjects. 

Write ten sentences containing the verbs has and 
have. Analyze each. 

Write four statements about a horse, using the 
words is and has. 

Write four statements about apples, using the words 
are and have. 

In the same manner write statements using the fol- 
lowing words with is and has, and are and luive : 
clouds tables knife cars 

sand houses grass mustard 

books paper letters pepper 

H. 

The girl sews, reads, and wi*ites. 
Girls sew, read, and write. 

Is the subject of the first sentence singular or plural. 

How does the subject of the second sentence differ 
from the first? 

What other words in the second sentence are differ- 
ent? 

Why must you use different forms of the verb in the 
second sentence from those in the first? 

The form of the verb is often determined by the 
number of the subject. 

You see that verbs may have singular and plural 
forms just like nouns. With singular subjects we 
must use singular verbs, and with plural subjects we 
must use plural verbs. 

Change the following singular forms to plural forms, 
and plural forms to singular: 

EXAMPLES \ Singular f orm The boy runs and jumps. 
( Plural form Boys run and jump. 



LANGUAGE. 39 

Cuckoos build no nests. 

The willow is a graceful tree. 

Elephants surpass all other land animals in size. 

Fishes have gills and fins. 

A volcanic mountain is sometimes quite low. 

The kangaroo has a pouch in which it carries its 
young. 

Write ten sentences in the plural form, and change 
each into a singluar form. 

I, we, he, she, it, they, you. 

Which of these pronouns name but one, or have the 
singular form? 

Which have the plural form? 

Write sentences containing these pronouns as sub- 
jects. 

in. 
Louise and Nellie paint. 

How many persons paint? 

When should a singular or a plural form of the verb 
be used? 

What word connects the words Louise and Nellie? 

Subjects connected by and take a plural verb. 

Write five sentences with the subjects connected by 
and. 

Her sister or her cousin sings. 
How many persons sing? 
Then what form of the verb should be used? 
Are the words sister and cousin singular or plural? 
What word connects sister and cousin $ 
Singular words connected by or take a singular verb. 
Write five sentences with singular nouns connected 
by or used as the subjects. 



40 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Her sisters or her cousins sing. 

How does this sentence differ from the last one 
given? 

What form of verb is used? 

Why is this form used? 

Plural nouns connected by or take a plural verb. 

Write five sentences with plural nouns connected 
by or used as subjects. 

Direct pupils to keep a copy of these rules, and en- 
courage them to apply the rules to their own errors. 
Also require sentences composed to illustrate the rules. 

Incidental Teaching of Literature. Consider- 
able knowledge of English Literature ought to be ob- 
tained by pupils while pursuing such studies as gram- 
mar, analysis, reading, and composition. The class in 
reading, for instance, instead of going again and 
again over the familiar, short extracts to be found in 
the ordinary " Header," should take up some extended 
work of the best writers in prose and poetry, such as 
Whittier's " Snow-bound," Hawthorne's " Twice-Told 
Tales," or Longfellow's "Evangeline." Such works 
are published in pamphlet form at a low price. In 
analysis something more than the mere separation of 
a sentence into its related parts should be attempted. 
If the idea is effectively expressed, the reason fo^ its 
effectiveness should be pointed out. If fine thoughts 
are met, let those be dwelt upon, and associated with 
the author's name. In composition work the best 
writings should be studied practically in the class to 
find what vigorous, yet simple, use the masters make 
of the English language. For this purpose excellent use 
can be made of the writings of Nathaniel Hawthorne. 



LANGUAGE. 41 

Locating Quotations. As a variation in lan- 
guage or literature work, give a list of quotations or 
names of books, and ask the pupils to find out the au- 
thor of each. They will enjoy the work, and will re- 
ceive decided benefit from it. A few quotations and 
titles are given to illustrate the suggestion. 

" Oh wad some power the giftie gie us, 
To see ourselves as ithers see us." 

" The shades of night were falling fast." 

" What is so rare as a day in June." 
" To be, or not to be: that is the question." 
" O the little birds sang east, and the little birds sang west.'* 
" Give me liberty, or give me death I" 

The Battle Hymn of the Republic. 
" Give me three grains of corn, mother." 

America. 

" Still stands the forest primeval." 
"The breaking waves dashed high." 

"Never, forever, 
Forever, never." 

"Home, Sweet Home." 

Our Mutual Friend. 

The Deserted Village. 

"A man's a man for a' that." 



42 SCHOOL DEVICES. 



CHAPTER II. 

GEOGRAPHY. 



Order of Topics for the Study of the Grand 
Divisions of the Earth. 

1. Striking characteristics. 

2. Brief history. 

3. Position, etc. 

11. Highlands. 
2. Lowlands. 
3. Profile. 
4. Progressive map. 

5. Drainage. 

6. Political divisions. 

C 1. Border water. 

7. Natural divisions. < 2. Projections. 

(3. Isthmuses. 
(1. Causes. 

8. Climate. < 2. Peculiarities. 

( 3. Healthfulness. 
( 1. Vegetable. 

9. Life. < 2. Animal. 

(3. Human. 

10. Productions. 

11. Exports. 

12. Imports 

13. Prominent cities. 

14. Journeys. 

15. Comparisons, 



GEOGRAPHY. 43 

Foundation Work in Geography. When a 
child begins the study of geography the maps in his 
text -book may have very little meaning for him. He 
is not, at an early age, able to look down upon an 
extended portion of the earth and see it in his mind 
stretched out as on the map. He has not had suf- 
ficient experience as yet. As introductory work, let 
the pupil begin to draw on paper plans of localities 
with which he is familiar. The schoolroom is a good 
example for the first effort. An outline of the proper 
proportion should first be drawn, and in it should be 
located in their proper places the various articles of 
school furniture. The playground may next be taken. 
Later on, the pupil's own home, with its land and build- 
ings, can be properly represented; and, finally, the 
surrounding country, with its rivers, streams, roads, 
mountains, etc. By following such a plan the pupil 
will be led to feel that he is looking down upon the 
actual country represented by the map he is studying. 
In this way the colored page before him becomes real 
land and water, and he comprehends the location of 
mountains, rivers, and cities, because he has repre- 
sented in the same way the localities which are 
familiar to him r 

Longitude and Latitude. Begin the lesson by 
reviewing the class on the shape of the earth and its 
daily rotation. Call their attention to the globe as 
representing the shape of the earth, and then show a 
large ball of white knitting-cotton or string with a 
knitting-needle run through the centre, as also repre- 
senting the form of the earth. Have near at hand 
some black pins and some black sewing-cotton, 



44 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Suppose a man starts from a hotel to walk along a 
strange road without any milestones. He knows he 
can walk one mile in fifteen minutes; how far can he 
walk in an hour? 

Of course the class will answer four miles. At the 
end of an hour he comes to a church ; how far will this 
be from the hotel? 

4 'Four miles." 

How does he know? 

"By the time occupied in walking." 

So he will say, "The church is four miles from the 
hotel, or the hotel is four miles from the church." 

If the road runs directly from east to west, he might 
say that the church is four miles to the east of the 
hotel, or the hotel is four miles to the west of the 
church. 

From this we infer that distance may he measured 
by time taken in traversing it. Upon the surface of 
the earth, distance is so measured. 

Take the white ball, and, holding it at the right degree 
of inclination, put in a pin to represent a man standing 
in New York City. Have a gas jet or some convenient 
spot on the ceiling to represent the sun, and let a pupil 
so turn the ball that the man in New York City shall 
have the sun as nearly as possible over his head. 
Place another pin to the north to represent a man in 
Montreal. Ask what time of day it will be to these men. 

' ' Twelve o'clock : noon. " 

Turn the ball to the east very slowly, and tell the 
class the ball is supposed to have been turning for an 
hour. The man in New York City looks up to the sun. 
What change has taken place? 

" The sun is not over his head." 



GEOGRAPHY. 45 

Put in a pin to represent a man who now has the sun 
directly overhead, and tell the class this man is stand- 
ing in Milwaukee. Ask them how long it took the 
earth to turn through that distance. 

The class infers that Milwaukee is one hour's journey 
for the earth to turn from New York City or from 
Montreal. So is Mohile. Suppose it is known how 
many miles a point on the earth turns through in an 
hour. Then, instead of saying one hour's journey, we 
might say it is so many miles ; but as a point on the 
earth turns through several hundred miles an hour, it 
is more convenient in talking about this distance to 
use a longer measure than a mile a measure called a 
degree. 

Write the word and the sign upon the blackboard, 
and make this inference from what has been told, 
writing it upon the blackboard: " A degree, in geog- 
raphy, contains many miles." 

Instead, then, of saying Milwaukee is an hour of the 
earth's journey from New York City, or so many 
hundreds of miles, we say it is so many degrees. 

Connect the pins from north to south with a piece of 
black cotton, and continue the cotton to the knitting- 
needle, which may represent the poles of the earth. 
Lead the class to infer that as New York and Montreal 
have noon at the same time, all places on the line pass- 
ing from pole to pole through these cities have noon 
at the same time. 

As Milwaukee and Mobile are on the same line, the 
class will see that all places on the line from pole to 
pole, passing through these cities, have noon at the 
same time. Tell the class that these lines are called 
mid-day lines or meridians which means the same. 



46 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Call attention to the fact that as one place is so 
many degrees east or west from another, there must be 
a starting line or meridian, and to distinguish this 
starting meridian from the others, it is called the prime 
meridian. While any meridian could be taken for the 
prime meridian, in order to save confusion the people 
of the world have fixed upon the meridian that passes 
through Greenwich, England, as the prime meridian. 

Write upon the blackboard the following for the 
class to copy and learn. 

Longitude is the distance of one place from another 
east or west, and is measured in degrees. 

A prime meridian is a meridian fixed to reckon 
longitude from. 

All places east of a prime meridian to 180 have 
east longitude and all places west to 180 have west 
longitude. 

The greatest number of degrees of longitude that 
any place may have is 180. 

A place must be situated on a meridian exactly op- 
posite a prime meridian in order to have 180 of lon- 
gitude. 

A place must be situated on a prime meridian to 
have no longitude. 

Bring before the class the white ball with black 
threads wound around it representing the meridians 
of longitude, and one thread passing around at right 
angles with the meridians to represent the equator. 
Tell the class that in order to get exact location the 
same necessity exists of having a fixed place on the 
earth from which to measure distances north and 
south, as in measuring distances east and west. Show 
on the ball the line representing the equator as being 



GEOGRAPHY. 47 

best for a starting-point, because it is equally distant 
from the north and south poles. 

Wind several lines around the ball on each side of 
the line representing the equator and parallel to it, 
and tell the class these are parallels of latitude. 

Write upon the blackboard the following: 

Latitude is distance north or south of the equator, 
and is measured by degrees. All places north of the 
equator to 90 have north latitude, and all places south 
of the equator to 90 have south latitude. 

The greatest number of degrees of latitude that any 
place may have is 90. 

A place must be situated at one of the poles to have 
90 of latitude. 

A place must be situated on the equator to have no 
latitude. 

A place must be situated where a prime meridian 
crosses the equator in order to have neither latitude 
nor longitude. 

Drill thoroughly upon each one of these definitions, 
asking pupils to give examples whenever possible, using 
both globe and map. Show by the globe why a place 
cannot have more than 180 longitude or 90 latitude; 
that degrees of latitude are always the same length, 
while those of longitude vary according to the distance 
from the poles. 

Make a practical application of the lesson by taking 
imaginary voyages over the sea to show how position 
of ships may be ascertained, and over the land, stopping 
at important places to determine their latitude and 
longitude. 

How to Vary a Geography Lesson. Here are 



48 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

suggested a few ways of varying the recitation that 
may be used with profit : 

1. GEOGRAPHY Quiz. Let two children come before 
the class and cross-question each other until one fails. 
Then let another take his place. This teaches questions 
as well as answers, and makes them think quickly. 

II. GEOGRAPHY MATCH.!. Let them choose sides 
as in a spelling-match. Question rapidly from side to 
side, and let pupils pass to seats when they fail. 

2. Let them choose sides as before. If one fails, the 
one who answers has the privilege of choosing one 
from the other side. If two fail, the one who answers 
may choose two, etc. If the question comes back to 
the side with which it began, nothing is gained by 
either. This is better than No. 1 in that it keeps all 
on the floor ; but both are good for Friday reviews. 

III. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION. Hang up map of 
Europe, Asia, or of any grand division or country the 
class has been studying, and let some member of the 
class stand before the map with a pointer ready to find 
any city, river, lake, mountain, sea, strait, etc., that 
the pupils of the class in order may ask him to find. 
Failure to locate any city, sea, etc., on the part of the 
pupil at the map, forfeits his place to the one who 
asked the question. The one securing the place at the 
map should of course, on taking his place, point out 
the answer to his question. 

IV. GEOGRAPHICAL OUTLINE. Put an outline on the 
blackboard, and let the recitation be from that. As- 
sign one topic to each pupil at the beginning of the 
recitation, or number the topics and pass numbered 
slips, letting them draw. Arrange the outline to suit 
the advancement of the class and the subject in hand. 



GEOGRAPHY. 49 



Illinois: 



Boundary, 

Capital, 

Important Cities, 

Eiyers, 

Climate, 

Productions, 

Industries. 



V. GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCHING. Let a pupil draw an 
outline map on the blackboard without using the book. 
Require quick work, and do not permit much erasing. 
The chief object of this exercise is not to test the 
pupil's skill in map-drawing, but his knowledge of 
location. When the outline is drawn let him put in 
mountains, rivers, cities, etc., as you name these. 
The class may do the same work upon their slates, 
but facing so as not to see the board. 

VI. GEOGRAPHICAL STORY. In teaching productions 
of different countries, tell a story of travels, pointing 
out places on the map as you go. Stop when you 
come to the name of a country, river, city, or produc- 
tion, and call on one member of the class to supply it. 
This exercise, to be effective, must be lively on the 
part of teacher and pupils. 

VII. GEOGRAPHICAL GAME. Let one pupil give the 
name of a town or river ; the next, one beginning with 
the last letter of the name previously given, etc. 
Example: Kalamazoo, Oswego, Oregon, Nashville, 
Erie, etc. It may be given first with any geograph- 
ical names, and then narrowed down to names in a 
particular country, or to a particular class of names. 
It may be extended by requiring the pupil to give loca- 
tion as well as names. 

VIII. GEOGRAPHICAL PUZZLE. Put something like 
the following on the blackboard as a lesson to be 



50 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

studied. The pupils may write it or learn it to recite 
orally, supplying names: "I have a bunch of flowers 
given to me by my little friends (two capes on the 
eastern coast of the United States). Here is a (moun- 
tain in Australia) one, here is a (river in Arkansas) 
one, and this one is as (mountains in New Hampshire) 
as (mountains in Cape Colony). This leaf is (river in 
Kentucky), that is (mountain in British America), and 
this one is nearly (river in South Africa). They were 
picked on the edge of a (mountains in Oregon), by the 
side of a large (river in Montana)." Put names that 
may be used in this way on the blackboard, and en- 
courage the pupils to make such puzzles to be given to 
the class. 

Locating Productions. Ask the pupils to write 
or name a list of articles found for sale in the grocery- 
store. Write this upon the blackboard as early in the 
week as Wednesday, telling the pupils that on Friday 
afternoon some time will be spent in talking about 
these things. Ask the pupils to find out all they can 
about these articles in the mean time, and to bring in 
any pictures that will illustrate any points about them. 

At the beginning of the exercise hang a map of the 
United States and of the world before the school, so 
that the pupils may point out the countries or parts of 
countries from which the different products come. It 
will add much to the interest of the exercise to have in 
sight small samples of the different articles. The tea, 
coffee, spices, dates, olives, flour, sugar, etc. , will bring 
out many interesting facts. Allow the pupils to relate 
in an easy and natural manner any information they 
have gained, and at the same time control and direct 
the exercise so as to make of it all a language lesson. 



GEOGBAPHY. 51 

The First Map. When pupils begin map-work, 
anticipate the step by making on manilla paper a 
large map of the school-room. Draw it before the 
pupils, and, taking it by the top, hang it on the north 
side of the room. They will see at once why the top 
is north, the right hand east, etc., and will be spared 
much confusion. 

Outline for North America by the use of 
moulding-board, wall-map, and drawing. 

1. POSITION. Use the globe for this. 

2. GENERAL FORM. Let pupil show this by drawing 
outline on the board. 

o q T7ir (Comparative. 

3. bizE. -j Abso j ute 

4. GENERAL BOUNDARIES. 

5. OUTLINE, COAST POINTS, AND ISLANDS. Use the 
moulding-board for this. As the different points on 
the coast are moulded, speak of any peculiarity per- 
taining to them, as points dangerous to seamen, etc. 
Discuss the waters surrounding a peninsula before 
taking up the peninsula itself, as Florida and the sur- 
rounding waters. 

Let the pupils draw outline on slates as the outline is 
placed on the board. 

6. SURFACE. 

{1. Atlantic Highlands. 
2. Pacific Highlands. 
3. Central plain. 
4. Height of land. 
5. Slopes. (N., S., K, and W.) 
After moulding the outline, build up 'the general 
relief as given by the pupils. 

(6) Separate each mountain system and plateau dis- 
tinctly. Separate the system into ranges and peaks. 



52 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

See that pupils can pronounce and spell all names. 
Speak of the scenery, productions, etc., of individual 
portions. Have pupils draw profile outlines from east 
to west, and north to south. 

7. DRAINAGE. Speak of the circulation from the 
ocean back again to the ocean. Show the water-sheds 
upon the moulding-board. Separate the rivers into 
systems. Mould the principal rivers and lakes. Bring 
out interesting points, such as Niagara, Yosemite, etc. 

8. SOIL. From the surface and drainage lead the 
class to infer the character of the soil. Bring out con- 
trasts, such as the barrenness of Labrador and the 
fertility of the Mississippi Valley. 

( Northern. 

9. CLIMATE. Three belts. < Central. 

( Southern. 

Lead the pupil to infer the climate from the position, 
after explaining the influence of elevation, proximity 
to oceans, slope, etc. 

10. PLANTS, ANIMALS, MINERALS, ETC. Use the three 
belts given above. Many of the points may be inferred 
from the surface, soil, and climate. 

11. POLITICAL DIVISIONS, PEOPLE, ETC. Take only 
the large divisions. Make the people of the countries 
real by pictures, stories, and articles belonging to 
them. 

12. CITIES. Name, locate, and describe some of the 
most important cities. Take imaginary journeys from 
one city to another, and let pupils describe surface, 
soil, climate, productions, and people of the country 
through which they pass. . Illustrate these journeys 
on the moulding-board. Points of history may be 
brought up incidentally. Have a complete map of 



GEOGBAPHY. 53 

North America drawn for review. Use the same plan 
for a state or country. 
Bead chapter xii., " Fitch's Lectures on Teaching." 

How to Mould. There are many teachers who, 
having read of moulding as an aid in the study of 
geography, would like to try it in their schools, yet 
do not know how to make the trial. The directions 
given below will aiford a good basis to begin upon, 
and from the practice of these suggestions the teacher 
will gain sufficient experience to pursue moulding in 
his classes. 

Let a board five feet long and four feet wide be 
made by taking five lengths out from a board one foot 
wide and half an inch thick. Place these side by side 
and fasten them to batten placed beneath. Around 
the edges of this board nail strips half an inch thick, 
and one inch and a half wide. The moulding will 
thus project above the board one inch. This may be 
placed on a table or desk, and slightly inclined. Place 
in this about a half bushel of moist loam, not too 
moist, as it would then stick to the fingers, but with 
moisture sufficient to render it capable of retaining 
any shape to which it may be moulded. 

Take for the first trial South America, as this pre- 
sents an easy outline. An outline may be drawn and 
the loam filled in between the lines, or, better still, let 
the outline be formed as the work progresses. The 
pupils should do the work with such assistance as is 
necessary from the teacher. Have a wall-map in 
sight of the subject in hand, also the relief-maps to 
be found in many of the geographies. Let mountains 
and rivers, lakes and plains, be represented by the 



54 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

appropriate elevation, level, or depression in the loam. 
Kindle additional enthusiasm by asking one pupil to 
bring some saltpetre; another, Cay enne pepper ; others, 
coffee, berries, wool, pieces of iron, gold and silver 
foil, or paper, cotton, leather, tobacco-leaf, glass, to 
represent diamonds, spices, etc. Let the pupils place 
these in their proper localities upon the moulded con- 
tinent, and South America will become real to them. 

Map-drawing. Have frequent map-drawing from 
memory, using no construction lines. Let it be done 
quickly and do not be too precise in your require- 
ments. A pupil who can draw quickly the outline of 
a country or a State, no matter if not perfectly true, 
and can locate cities, rivers, etc., has gained a knowl- 
edge of geography that will outlast his school exam- 
inations. 

A Normal Lesson. The following lesson in geog- 
raphy is one given at a normal school, and is intro- 
duced here on account of its eminent adaptability to 
other parts of geography. The average age of the 
class to which it was given was eleven years. 

State Work Texas. 

General plan. 

Name and history. 

Boundaries. 

Coa*t-line. { ^3, etc. 
Draw a map of the State. 
Mould it. 
^nrfapp J Diction of slope. 

ce ' ( Mountains, plateaus. 
Rivers. 
Soil. 



GEOGRAPHY. 55 

C Temperature. 

Climate. < Humidity. 

( Healthf ulness. 

Productions. 

Occupations. 

C Capital. 

Cities. < Metropolis. 

( Oldest city, etc. 

Pictures and interesting facts to illustrate any part 
of the work. 

In a previous lesson the class had compared the 
the State, in size, with New England, the Middle 
States, etc., and had learned some of the important 
facts of its history, with mention of Generals Scott 
and Taylor. One pupil was directed to give the boun- 
daries from a wall-map, and the drill was as follows : 

As the pupil pointed, the class named the boundary ; 
another pupil named State, and class told which boun- 
dary it formed. Then a pupil was called upon to close 
his eyes and bound; class did the same. The bays, 
capes, and coast-line were treated in a similar way. 
Pupils were sent to the board who drew rapidly, with- 
out construction-lines, the outline of the State from a 
wall-map. The teacher pointed and traced parts on 
the wall-map ; pupils traced the same on the outline. 
The teacher had moulded the State, and three or four 
came to the table and told all they could in regard to 
the surface as exhibited by the moulding. The class 
was led to see that there were three kinds of surface. 
The terms " prairie" and u staked plains" were given, 
and the reason for the name " staked plains." There 
was a drill on the surface as follows: One child found 
a lowland on the map, another the same on the mould- 
ing; one a prairie on the map, another the same on 



56 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

the moulding. Some found and traced the three kinds 
of surface, while others found the same upon the 
moulded State. The Guadaloupe Mountains were de- 
scribed from the map and from the moulding, and 
were drawn in outline upon the board. The class 
determined the direction and length of rivers by the 
slope. The important rivers were found on the map, 
traced in the moulding, and drawn upon the board. 
Pupils described rivers from the map and moulding 
with closed eyes. 

SOIL. Teacher : You remember the pictures shown 
you of the swamps of Louisiana; what kind of soil did 
you find there ? 

Class: Rich soil. 

Teacher (passing to Texas soil, near Louisiana) : 
what kind of soil do you think there is here ? 

Class determine that it is rich. 

They were then led to infer the kind of soil on the 
prairie by being told that wheat grows there; and that 
of the " staked plains" by being told that cactuses 
grow there. u How many of you have cactuses at 
home ?" the teacher asked. By asking a few questions 
as to the care of these, she prepared a basis for an 
inference as to the humidity of the climate of the 
" staked plains." 

By their knowledge of the climate of Louisiana, the 
climate of the swamps and low portions of Texas was 
developed. The class was led to infer that the prairies 
are not as moist as the swamps, and that in these 
parts of the State the climate is warm and healthful. 
From what had been said about the cactuses, they 
were led to infer that the climate of the plains is dry 
and hot. The pupils then traced on the moulding 



GEOGRAPHY. 51 

the parts of the State that are healthful, moist, very 
moist, dry, etc. Teacher pointed to various parts ; 
children told the climate of those parts. Teacher 
asked, "In what direction must one go to find the 
climate more moist ? to find it drier ? to find it 
unhealthful ?" One pupil was asked to recount all 
that had been said about the climate. Another sup- 
plied what was omitted. 

PRODUCTIONS. The class was led to infer that 
nearly the same productions would be found in the 
swampy regions of Texas as in the same portions of 
Louisiana. One named the productions, while another 
placed the articles in the proper localities. Pictures 
of trees, sugar-cane, etc., were shown. In the same 
way the productions of the prairies and staked plains 
were taken up. Pictures of the cactus, aloe, and 
century-plant were shown. There were small pictures 
of Texan ponies, cattle, and sheep, which the pupils 
placed on the moulding in the proper places. The 
lesson ended with productions. At the next lesson a 
rapid review would be taken. 

It can readily be seen that occupations would be in- 
ferred from the statement of productions. While the 
lesson was going forward all new matter was written 
upon the board under appropriate headings, as Kivers, 
Productions, etc. 

Mark in the lesson the use of wall-map, blackboard, 
moulding, how the true relative importance of each 
is carefully observed. 

Production Map. In many schools there are no 
opportunities for teaching the productions of a country 
by placing these upon the moulded country. A sub- 



58 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

stitute for this may be arranged in this way: Upon a 
large sheet of manila-paper let the pupils draw an out- 
line of the country the class is studying. An outline 
in blue color with water-lines around is quite effective. 
Paste upon the map the products of the country in 
their proper localities. Rice, logwood, tobacco-leaf, 
wheat, oats, gold and silver leaf, cotton, wool, in 
fact, nearly every product can be easily fastened to 
the paper with a little glue. Pupils will gladly bring 
all the products if asked to do so. The production 
map can be used to give variety and freshness to the 
subject in schools that use the moulding-board. 

Zigzag Journeys. For special work in geography 
give topics such as the following: Make a zigzag 
journey from New York to St. Louis, stopping at five 
cities, and spending one day in each. Have the pupils 
tell what could be seen in each. In order to do this, 
they are obliged to read up on these cities. Other 
topics of this sort will suggest themselves. 

Tracing. It adds interest and forms a new way of 
impressing the facts of geography to let pupils trace in 
the air with the finger the general direction of rivers 
and mountain chains, the outlines of continents, lakes, 
etc., and at each new position of the finger tell what 
portion of country or what city is to be found there. 

A Guessing Exercise. An occasional exercise 
like the following will stimulate interest and add en- 
joyment to the geography hour. The teacher, or a 
member of the class, having in mind a city, begins to 
locate it according to the model herewith given. As 



GEOGRAPHY. 59 

soon as any one thinks he is able to name the city cor- 
rectly, let him raise his hand and state what city he 
thinks it is. The pupils may prepare at their seats 
papers similar to the model. Supposing the city in 
mind to be Liverpool, the paper would read : The city 
I am thinking of is north of the Equator, west of the 
Ural Mountains. It is on an island. It is a city of 
Great Britain. It is near the mouth of a river. It is 
a great commercial city. It is south of the Cheviot 
Hills. Steamships make it the end of their route. It 
is noted for its docks. 

Peninsulas, rivers, capes, lakes, seas, mountains, 
volcanoes, islands, states, even countries, can be used 
in this way. 

Geography a Means of Culture. Geography 
may be made a means of broadening the mind by 
studying the subject, as far as possible, as one would 
in making an actual trip through the different coun 
tries. In order to do this, the teacher must make him- 
self familiar, by outside reading, with the appearance 
of the country, its inhabitants, social manners, govern- 
ment, educational advancement, customs, traditions, 
early history , etc. The more vividly and interestingly 
these subjects are brought before the pupils, the 
greater will be their interest in what is presented, and 
the firmer their remembrance of it. We give here- 
with a list of topics which may be brought up in con- 
nection with the study of any country: 

1. Name of country. 

2. Eelative size as compared with some one of the 

United States, which may be taken as a 
standard. 



60 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

3. Position. 

C Customs, manners, social life, traditions, 

4. People. < education, early history, appearance, 

( vigor, form of government, etc. 

5. Climate. Under this head mention the cause of 

the climate, and how affected by position and 
surface. 

6. Mountains. 

. 7. Lakes and rivers. 

' (a) Mineral. If gold or silver is 
found, give a description of 
the way in which these are 

Q' -Pivwiii/t+i/mc mined. Likewise of lead, salt, 

8. Productions. \ diamonds, copper, etc. 

(6) Vegetable. 

(c) Animals. Show pictures of all 
these, if possible. 

Bring out the surface of the country by the mould- 
ing-table. If the school is supplied with encyclopaedias, 
urge pupils to read all that is given on the several 
topics. If the school is not provided with encyclopaedias, 
get up some sort of a literary entertainment, and pur- 
chase one of the numerous sets that are now sold at 
low rates. It will be a source of great profit and en- 
tertainment to the pupils. 

Suggestive Model for an Examination in 
Geography. In making a voyage from London to 
Eome, what countries would you pass ? What large 
cities near the coast? What large rivers flow into the 
waters along your course ? 

Mention the cities of Europe that are near mountain- 
ranges. 

Through what States would a line drawn from New 



GEOGRAPHY. 61 

York City to Chicago pass ? What large cities would 
be near this line ? Mention the rivers which the line 
would cross. 

Describe the water-shed of the Mississippi and the 
rivers which drain it. 

Why is the climate of Oregon warmer than that of 
Minnesota ? 

What waters wash the shores of North America ? 

Mention the largest rivers of Europe, Asia, Africa, 
North and South America. 

Describe a journey from your present position, 
selecting your own destination. 

Why is the Great Salt Lake salt, and Lake Erie 
fresh ? 



62 SCHOOL DEVICES. 



CHAPTER III. 

SPELLING. 

Accuracy in Spelling. Teach pupils that they 
must never write a word when they are uncertain of 
the way in which it should be spelled. Have a dic- 
tionary in the school-room and encourage pupils to 
consult it constantly not only for the spelling and 
pronunciation of words, hut also for their meaning. 

Phrase-spelling. Let there be occasional exer- 
cises in phrase-spelling by the classes in Physics, 
Physiology, History of the United States, Civil Gov- 
ernment, Ehetoric, and other subjects, as many of the 
words used in such studies are not often found in the 
usual spelling lessons. Let the class go to the boards, 
and each one write his name at the top of the space 
allotted to his use. The teacher may then select from 
the text-book phrases, words, and sentences, reading 
one of these to each pupil at the board. Continue 
around the class till each one has written several. 

After these have been written, let the class take 
seats and criticise the spelling. A part of a paragraph 
from Higginson's " History of the United States" is re- 
produced here to show more clearly the plan. 

"During this time of delay a committee had 



SPELLING. 63 

been appointed to draw up a declaration of inde- 
pendence, to be used if necessary. . . . The Declara- 
tion was written by Thomas Jefferson, though a few 
verbal changes were made by Adams and Franklin, 
which may still be seen, in their hand-writing, on the 
original document. There was a long discussion in 
the Congress, and the Declaration was debated and 
criticised, word by word, and sometimes very severely 
attacked. During this attack John Adams was its 
chief defender; while Jefferson, who had written it, 
did not say a word." In this extract the first pupil 
could be directed to write the sentence, "A commit- 
tee had been appointed;" another, "To draw up a 
declaration of independence." To others could be as- 
signed, " If necessary," "The Declaration was written 
by Thomas Jefferson," "A few verbal changes were 
made by Adams and Franklin," "The original docu- 
ment," "There was a long discussion in Congress," 
" The Declaration was debated and criticised," "Some- 
times very severely attacked," "John Adams was its 
chief defender." 

A Pupil's Spelling-book. It may be found ad- 
visible to allow students in spelling to make a spelling- 
book of the words they acquire from each lesson. Ten 
minutes may be taken each day in which to write 
these words in a blank-book, each one writing the 
words which he has learned. The words should be 
written in a column, and the meaning of each may 
be placed opposite it. 

Avoid Contrasting a Misspelled Word with 
the Correct Form. A misspelled word should never 



64 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

be written on the board, even to show that it is wrong. 
The tendency will be to confuse the pupil, and cause 
him to forget which is the correct and which is the in- 
correct way to spell the word. 

Have Spelling Lessons Written. Spelling les- 
sons should be written, as far as practicable. The 
advantage of this is that the pupil learns to spell the 
words as he will use them. The words should be given 
out slowly, else in his hurry the pupil will form a 
habit of bad writing, and so lose hi one branch while 
he gains in another. A special effort should be made 
to create a pride in having neatly written exercises. 

Idea as Necessary as Form. It is important 
that the pupil know the meaning of the word spelled. 
The form can make but little impression on his mind, 
if he does not associate with it the meaning con- 
veyed. 

A Test outside the Spelling-book. Lay aside 
for a day the monotonous spelling-book, which con- 
tains a large percentage of words with which the 
pupil's mind should not be burdened, and try an exer- 
cise like the following : 
Let the pupils take their slates and write their own 

names in full. 

Write the teacher's surname. 
Write the name of the county in which they live. 
Tell where Scotchmen come from. 
Tell how old a boy is who was born in 1879. 
Write the names of four winter amusements, of four 
summer amusements. 
4 



SPELLING. 65 

Tell how many days in this month. 

Mention what we plant to get potatoes. 

Give a definition of a druggist. 

Name six pieces of furniture. 

Name six kinds of tools. 

Write the names of the seven days. 

Name the year, month, and the day of the month. 

Write a verse from memory. 

A Suggestion. A child learns best how to spell 
a word when he wishes to use it, and the wise teacher 
will constantly create that want. When a word is 
written in black or white, it stamps itself much more 
firmly upon the mind than when merely committed to 
memory. In writing, the hand forms the word, and 
the child will long remember just how he formed it, 
and its appearance on the board or slate. 

Sketches of Objects for Use in Spelling. In 
primary spelling work, the teacher may make rough 
sketches of different objects on the board, and ask the 
class to write the names of these upon their slates. If 
any do not know the spelling of a particular word, 
write it on the board. After this the pupils may be 
asked to tell what they can about these objects, and a 
short description of each may be written on the board 
and copied on the slates. The sketches may be of a 
number of objects that are connected, and about 
which a short story can be made. This will give the 
class practice in invention. It will not take much 
skill on the part of the teacher to make these sketches, 
even if his knowledge of drawing is limited. 



C6 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 



Dictation Exercises for Second and Third 
Years. The following sentences are suitable for 
Dictation exercises in the second and third years. 
The first half of the sentences given for the second 
year should be copied by pupils from the blackboard 
before they are dictated. 



I see a hat. 
I see a cup. 
I see a slate. 
I see a fan. 
I have a fan. 
I have a slate. 
I have a nut. 
I see a nut. 
You have a nut. 
You have a cup. 
You see the hat. 
I have the fan. 
You have the top. 
I have the top. 
See the top. 
Have I a nut? 
Have I a fan? 
Have I a top? 
Have you a slate? 
Have you the cat? 
We have a slate. 
We have a nut. 
We see the hen. 
They have a fan. 
They see the bird. 



SECOND YEAR. 

She has a nut. 

She has a bird. 

She has a doll. . 

See the doll. 

Have they a box? 

She has a box. 

Has she a doll? 

Has she a ball? 

Yes, I see the ball. 

Can I have the cap? 

Can they see the ball? 

They can see a dog. 

I can see a dog and a cat. 

You have a hat and a cap. 

They have a bird and a hen. 

You and I can see the hen. 

He has a top and a ball. 

You can have nuts. 

Can they see the birds? 

He cannot have the tops. 

No, he has not a slate. 

It is a little bird. 

It is not a little fan. 

They have a little dog. 

Is it a little box? 



67 



See the bird. 
Have we a bird? 
Have we the hen? 
You have the cap. 
Have they a slate? 
Have they a nut? 



The little slate is on the box. 

The book is on the slate. 

I have a li ttle book. 

What have you in the large box. 

What can you see in the book? 

Where is your pencil? 



I cannot see the pencil. 
Where is your hat? 
What is in the box? 
Where are your hens? 
Where are we going? 
We are going to see the 

birds eat. 

Will you let John go? 
He can go with me. 
Let me play with your 

doll. 
You can play with her 

doll. 

Her doll is pretty. 
He has one red top and 

one black top. 
She has two eyes. 
We can see three birds in 

the tree. 



Do not let him see the 

birds. 
I saw four boys in the 

room. 
I have five fingers on my 

hand. 
Four balls and two balls 

are six balls. 
Seven boys ran home. 
We ate eight nuts. 
Here are nine cakes for 

you. 
I gave ten cents for the 

cakes. 
I have two red roses to 

give to you. 
I have read your book. 
I took two pencils from 

my desk. 



THIRD YEAR. 



You have a bell in your 
left hand. 

John walked to the win- 
dow. 

George threw his ball to 
my brother. 



When they left there was 
a child in the room. 

They showed me their 
playthings. 

I always wear a clean 
collar. 



68 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 



Mary gave me her long 

pencil. 
You wrote a story upon 

the blackboard. 
You placed a pretty flower 

in your hair. 
Mary opened the door. 
Miss Brown looked at the 

clock. 
Miss Jones gave me her 

knife. 
John cleaned his slate 

with my sponge. 
You threw a ball to John 

and he caught it. 
Miss Mills gave a slate to 

me and a book to John. 
You rang your bell twice. 
I heard Mary walking 

upon the floor. 
I heard the birds singing 

in the trees. 
I wrote a letter to my 

mother. 
There are four little birds 

in this tree. 

They are all building nests. 
Their nests are little, but 

pretty. 
Their singing is very 

sweet. 
Every bird in the tree is a 

very sweet little singer. 



All boys do not wear shoes 

in summer. 
The basket is too heavy for 

me to lif t. 
We are having very warm 

weather. 

John stands near the door. 
Please give me some 

crumbs for my birds. 
If you stand here you will 

hear the birds sing. 
Here are crumbs for your 

bird. 
How much did you pay for 

your book? 
I am sure he went to the 

store. 
No, he does not know I am 

here. 
We shall have a great 

many apples this year. 
Which child saw the bird 

fly. 

Every child saw the birds 

fly. 
They have gone to their 

homes. 
I bought a slate and 

brought it to school. 
He does not know I have 

learned to write. 
He does not live near my 

house. 



SPELLING. 69 

Division of Work. A certain teacher uses this 
plan with his spelling class. The pupils are sent to the 
board and divided into two divisions, one of which 
writes the words upon the board and the other the 
definitions. At the next recitation the order may be 
reversed. Those writing definitions receive a drill in 
composition, as they use their own language in giving 
the meanings of the words. 

To prevent copying at the boards, divide the class 
into three divisions, and give each division a word in 
turn ; mingle the divisions, so that no two pupils hav- 
ing the same word shall stand side by side. 

Two Classes of Words. The spelling-book should 
not be used to the exclusion of all other sources. Two 
classes of words should be recognized, those whose 
meaning is familiar through daily use, and those par- 
tially familiar because frequently heard. Others may 
be left until the pupil comes to them in his widening 
sphere of reading. The spelling of the first class of 
words may be taught either in the form of sentences 
or disconnectedly. The second should only be brought 
up in connection with sentence-making. 

Spelling and Punctuation by Copying. The 
classes in the first and second reader may copy all 
their reading lessons. By this means they will grad- 
ually become familiar with the spelling of words com- 
monly used, as well as the use of marks of punctua- 
tion. When the second class has finished the first half 
of the book, a spelling lesson may be assigned from 
words found in each day's lesson. In correcting work 
it will be found advantageous, both to the teacher and 



70 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

pupils, for the slips to be exchanged and the errors 
noted by the pupils themselves. From the fact that 
they are correcting one another's work, they will look 
more carefully for mistakes and pay more marked at- 
tention to their correction. 

A Monthly Review. Look over the words given 
during the past month, and make a list for a review 
lesson. The pupils, with slates erased and pencils 
sharpened, remain at their desks, while the teacher 
takes his position at the blackboard. 

No word should be given until the room is perfectly 
quiet, and no word should be pronounced the second 
time, as it hinders those who understood the first pro- 
nunciation. While the class is writing the second 
word, the teacher puts the first word upon the board. 

At the close of the lesson each pupil corrects his 
work by comparing it with that on the board, and 
carefully copies in a note-book kept for the purpose 
all words he has misspelled, and those he was not cer- 
tain about at the time of writing. 

From the note-book the pupil can study the words 
he missed, and also make sure of the uncertain ones, 
and therefore, need waste no time in looking over 
words with which he is already acquainted. 

Occasionally, the teacher should examine the note- 
books to see that they are neatly kept, and to select 
words for another spelling exercise. If a pupil misses 
a word a second time, as he writes it in his book, have 
him mark it by the figure 2, etc., that special atten- 
tion may be given to these words. Require pupils to 
write these words a certain number of times or to give 
them in sentences. It is necessary for the teacher to 



SPELLING. 71 

keep a record of all the words given, so that if any 
pupil is unavoidably detained at home, he may regain 
what he lost. 

Ways of Examining Spelling Lessons. 1. In 

review lessons and in small classes the teachers should 
correct the lessons. 

2. Pupils may exchange slates, and mark the words 
wrongly spelled, the teacher spelling the words slowly. 

3. Pupils may retain their own slates, and the teacher 
may call on different pupils to spell the words orally. 
Those who agree with the spelling given must indicate 
this by raising their hands before the teacher decides 
as to its correctness. 

4. Slates may be exchanged and the corrections 
made as in No. 3. 

5. While the teacher writes the correct spelling on 
the blackboard, each pupil may correct his own work, 
and slates or books will then be exchanged for revision 
only. 

6. Let the spelling come the last exercise in the 
morning, and direct the pupils to leave their slates 
upon their desks. Furnish a correct list of the words 
given out to two or three trusty pupils who remain at 
noon, and let them look over the slates and mark each 
error. 

A Special Exercise for Variety. A lesson 
having been assigned and studied, call the class and 
request a pupil to go to the blackboard and write, 
from memory, three or four words of the lesson. 
After the pupil has taken his seat call upon another 
one to write, in the same way, two or three words, 
other than those previously written. Continue this 



72 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

until the entire lesson has been written, or the time 
for this part of the exercise has expired. If any word 
has been misspelled correct it at once. 

Then in an easy, conversational manner, talk about 
the words, find out their meaning and application, 
giving several illustrations of the latter. 

After the pupils have a good understanding of the 
words, send them to the blackboard, and proceed with 
the recitation as follows : 

Suppose the words upon the blackboard to be 

1. Expect; 2. Eeceived; 3. Cistern; 4. Bellows; 5. 
Scissors, etc. 

Ask the first pupil what he expects to do on Satur- 
day, and have him write his answer beginning thus: 

I expect, etc. 

Ask the next pupil how many letters he has received 
during the past month. His answer must contain the 
word " received." 

To the third pupil put the question, "What is the 
difference between a cistern and a well?" 

To the fourth, "In what trade is the bellows used?" 
and so on. 

If the class is large, have several pupils answer the 
same question at the same time, in this way : The first 
pupil and every fifth one after him answer question 
No. 1 ; the second pupil and every fifth one after him 
answer the second question, and so on until all are 
employed. 

The sentences being finished, each pupil moves on 
one place to the right, and inspects the work before 
him, making any necessary corrections either with or 
without the aid of the teacher, and marking all correc- 
tions made. 



SPELLING. 73 

An Occasional Drill in Spelling. Take a little 
time once a month or more frequently, in which to 
drill on lists of words such as the following. Repeat 
each list until the pupils are thoroughly familiar with 
them: 

Poniard. Privilege. Judgment. 

Separate. Ethereal. Knowledge. 

Business. Ecstasy.. Ehetoric. 

Scintillate. Excellent. Surgeon. 

Allege. Supersede. Ancient 

Exhilarate. Ventilate. Autumn. 

Mignonette. Alcohol. Dairy. 

Neutral. Brilliant. Health. 

Isthmus. Marriage. Oyster. 

Difficult or Perplexing Words. The following 
words are introduced to show devices by which the 
spelling of many words may be remembered : 

Committee. The spelling will be easily remem- 
bered from its having three 
double letters. 

Mediterranean. Double-r, because derived from 
terra, meaning earth. 

Aqueduct. Aq, not acg, because from aqua, 

meaning water. 

Bilious. One Z, because connected with bile. 

Keceive. ^ 

Perceive. > When e and i occur as diphthongs 

Conceive. ) in a word, e comes before the i 

Retrieve. \ if the diphthong is preceded 

Eelieve. by c; otherwise the i precedes e. 

Achieve. ) 

Secretary. e after the r because formed from 

secret. 



74 SCHOOL DEVICES. 



CHAPTER IV. 

HEADING. 

To Create Sentiment against Poor Reading. 
For advanced classes select something not pre- 
viously read; for instance, "The Legend of Sleepy 
Hollow." Have but one copy, and ask each member 
of the class to read a portion. The interest of the class 
in the story, and the unwillingness to lose any part of 
it, will secure expressive and distinct reading. 

Suggestions on Reading. In the first place, do 
not make the lessons long do a little, and do that 
thoroughly. Insist that the reading shall be natural, 
as the pupil would talk were he telling the same thing 
to another. Occasionally read over the lesson to the 
class, and give such expression as shall bring out the 
full meaning. Show the class by individual para- 
graphs how the meaning is brought out more clearly 
in this way. Let all new words be defined before the 
reading begins. The scholar cannot read properly if 
he does not know the meaning of some of the words. 
These new words may be written out on the board 
with the meaning of each. After their meaning has 
been learned, have members of the class make up sen- 
tences with these words in them; this will fix the 
meaning in their minds. Call on some one in the 



READING. 75 

class to give the chief points in the preceding lesson, 
or let the whole class write a review of it. Ask some 
one to read a sentence in the lesson, then with closed 
book tell clearly and fully what he has just read. 
Full answers should be required, that the habit of 
thoroughness may be cultivated. Do not correct mis- 
pronunciation while the pupil is reading. You will 
thus destroy the sense of his reading. 

A Primary Reading Lesson. The following is 
essentially an object lesson to be given to little people 
just learning to read : 

It is best that there be not more than eight or ten in 
the class. If there are more who are to begin reading, 
divide the whole number into two or more divisions. 
Take some familiar object, as a box. Talk a few mo- 
ments about the box, holding it so that all can see it. 
Then draw an outline picture of it upon the board and 
write under it the word box, telling the class that this 
word b-o-x is the name of the object you are holding. 
When pupils have become familiar with the appear- 
ance of the word and its spelling, show them that the 
object has been expressed in three ways, by the box 
you are holding, by the picture, and by the word. 
They will then get the notion that a word is a sign 
of an idea. Next take a book, and follow the same 
plan. When the two words are written on the board, 
point in turn to each till the class becomes familiar 
with the objects as expressed in the word. Place the 
box on the book and ask, "Where is the box ?" On 
the book. As the class give this answer, write the 
word on between the words already on the board, and 
the class will be able to read and understand the sen- 



76 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

tence, U A box on a book." Add other words to the 
sentence in the same way, and let the children copy 
the words and the pictures on their slates. 

Teaching Time of Day. A little time can be 
taken at the close of the reading lessons for this pur- 
pose. Make a clock-dial out of pasteboard and pieces 
of tin, or, what is better, procure an old clock; then 
practise telling the exact hours that is, minute hand 
at twelve, while the hour hand is changed from hour 
to hour. Next, let hour hand remain at twelve, and 
drill upon the time past the hour; as, five, ten, or fif- 
teen minutes past to half past. Then would come five, 
ten, fiteen, etc., minutes to half past the other hours. 
Last, teach to tell the number of minutes to any given 
hour. 

Device for Teaching a New Word. (a) Select 
some sentence containing the word, and write this upon 
the blackboard. Indicate the correct pronunciation of 
the word by diacritic marks, then have the class read 
the sentence. 

(6) Question about the letters in the word. What 
letters are silent ? What letters are not silent ? Are 
there any letters doubled ? 

(c) Let the class copy the word in other sentences, 
the teacher taking care that the word is correctly 
used. 

(d) Drill upon writing the word in dictated sen- 
tences until class know its form thoroughly. 

Suggesting for Words. An excellent plan to 
prepare pupils for a new reading lesson is to select the 



OF,THF. 

HEADING. -j 

new words and suggest for them. Below we give a. 
part of a reading lesson from one of the school readers, 
and a list of words new or unfamiliar to the pupils on 
taking up the lesson. After the list of words, are the 
suggestions for them. The words are written upon 
the board as soon as got from the pupils, and drill is 
put upon these words before beginning to read the 
lesson. 

ONLY A FEW DROPS. 

" The most interesting event of our family history during 
my tenth year was the purchase of a cow. My father had a 
patch of land about a mile from our house, and he thought 
that the best use he could turn it to would be to pasture a cow. 
How many comforts and little luxuries that cow provided us 
with ! milk, and butter, and sometimes even a cheese. Next 
to Cuff, our faithful house dog, the cow became the pet of the 
family. 

2. " And who is going to drive the cow to pasture, father ?" 
I asked, as he put her into the yard on the first evening after 
her arrival. " You, Robert," he replied ; and his answer gave 
me no little sense of my own importance. Here I was with a 
charge laid on me, an important duty which I was to dis- 
charge every day, and which for some time I did discharge 
with pleasure and alacrity." 

INTERESTING DISCHARGE 

INQUIRIES ARRIVAL 

ALACRITY EVENT 

PURCHASE IMPORTANCE 

Harry's mother held two letters in her hand. She 
read one carelessly, and then cast it aside ; but as she 
read the other one, her eyes brightened and she looked 
pleased. What kind of a letter was the second one ? 
Interesting. It told her that her sister and two boys 



78 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

were coming to visit her. Harry's mother went to the 
kitchen to prepare for the visit. Name a few articles 
you think she cooked. Can we live without cake, pies, 
and puddings ? Why do we eat them ? What do we 
call unnecessary articles that we like ? Luxuries. 

Mrs. Howe, Harry's mother, wanted a number of 
articles from the cellar, for which she sent Harry. 
How do you think he obeyed ? Because he obeyed 
quickly, with what did he obey ? Quickness, or alac- 
rity. 

She found there were not enough raisins in the 
house. What do you think Harry had to do ? Go to 
the store to buy some. What word means buy ? Pur- 
chase. 

Harry lived on a farm and had duties to perform 
each day ; so when he asked his father if he might go 
to the train to meet his cousins, what do you think his 
father said ? What word means done, or finished? 
Discharged. 

The next afternoon, if you had been near the station, 
you would have seen Harry. What was he doing 
there? Waiting for his cousins. To do what? What 
word means come? Arrive. Because he was waiting 
for them to arrive, we say he was waiting for their 
? Arrival. 

The visitors stayed a month. They went riding, 
boating, and on picnics; and all had a very good 
time. . . . 

Why do people read histories and books about the 
olden times ? What one word means things that hap- 
pen ? Events. 

Do these books give all the events of those times ? 
Which ones ? The most important. Instead of say- 



READING. 79 

ing, they are important events, we may say, they are 
events of importance. 

Other Points on Reading. 1. Insist that the les- 
son shall be read by each pupil as he would talk if he 
were saying the same thing. 

2. Take a few moments at the close of each lesson 
to make plain that which might prove to be an 
obstacle in the advance lesson. From time to time 
read over the advance lesson to the class, using the 
proper expression. 

3. By questions and answers, make plain all new 
words. Form new sentences, using these words. 

4. Let class criticise as each pupil pronounces. 
Teacher notes mispronounced words not noticed by 
the class, and requires them to be corrected for the 
next lesson. 

5. Let a part of each lesson be written on the board 
or upon slates. Give a list of words which are to be 
used in original sentences, and insist that these 
sentences be well written, and that they have some 
meaning. 

6. Let the review lesson be read each day. Do not 
call upon pupils in any set order, but promiscuously. 
Question thoroughly as to the meaning of the sentences 
read. If the sentence reads as follows: " Charles and 
Henry went to the meadow beyond the wood, this 
morning, to pick strawberries," do not ask such ques- 
tions as, "What did Charles and Henry do? For 
what purpose did they go to the meadow ? Where is 
the meadow ?" etc. ; but ask for all the ideas contained 
in the sentence. That the pupils may be able to do 
this, begin with short sentences, and proceed to those 



80 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

longer and more involved, as the pupils acquire readi- 
ness in seizing the whole thought. 

7. Before reading the advanced lesson the pupil 
should be ahle to pronounce all of the words, and also 
understand the thought conveyed in each sentence. 
He will then be able to read with expression. Do not 
correct a pupil while reading, unless he mispronounces, 
or reads with such expression as to lose the meaning 
of the text. 

8. Have occasional exercises in reading at sight. 

9. Occasionally read a short poem, and show the 
class how language may gain force and beauty from 
its poetic form. 

10. If your pupils are of sufficient age, have selec- 
tions read from the newspapers, and explained. Let 
all the places in these selections be fixed, geographi- 
cally, by looking them up on the map. 

11. It is better to have the idea of the sentence 
brought out with the proper expression, and to correct 
mispronunciation afterwards. Read short stories or bits 
of travel or history to the class, and ask pupils to 
repeat them, giving all the ideas. Do not follow any 
one plan continuously, but give variety to your work 
from day to day. 

How to Vary a Reading Lesson. Cut from a 
magazine or newspaper a narrative story that is inter- 
esting, and not too difficult for the class to read as 
easily as they would the regular lesson in their reader. 
Select all the new words in it and write them on the 
blackboard, to be pronounced and defined by the class. 

Divide the story into as many parts as there are 



READING. 81 

pupils in the class, and give each a paragraph to study 
over at his seat. 

When the recitation hour comes spend the first part 
in drilling upon the words on the blackboard. Then 
have the class commence reading, requiring them to 
arrange the paragraphs given them so as to make good 
sense. The pupil who has the part on which the sub- 
ject of the story is written reads first. The others 
read whenever they see their paragraphs are needed. 

At first, care should be taken to cut the story in such 
a way that the connection may be easily seen. 

The teacher should always have a copy of the story 
in order to prompt the pupils if necessary. 

Helps in Reading. In the preparation of lessons 
with primary classes, write the new words in sen- 
tences on the blackboard, constructing the sentences 
so as to suggest the word and illustrate its meaning: 
for example, if hungry is the word write a sentence 
like the following : The little boy eats as if he were 
hungry. If spare is the word, meaning to do without, 
write, I have two dolls, so I can spare you one. After 
each sentence is read, the new words may be under- 
lined and pronounced. Sometimes it is well to spell 
them and analyze them into their sounds. The pupils 
should also use the new words in sentences of their 
own constructing. 

Let the pupils determine new words for themselves 
from their resemblance to other words they already 
know. Words taught in this way should be those the 
pupils are already familiar with in conversation ; from 
the word catch they can learn match; from house, 
mouse ; from walk, talk, etc. 



82 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Let the pupils find out the new words in a lesson by 
giving the sounds of the letters in succession, the 
teacher marking the letters whose sounds would not 
otherwise be known, and crossing out silent letters. 

The new words may be spelled orally by letters, each 
syllable being pronounced as an aid to final pronuncia- 
tion. When words are so taught, they should be in a 
selected list, not spelled out as the pupils come to them 
in reading and find they do not know them. 

To test the class upon the meaning of words taught, 
the teacher may give the meaning of a word or 
illustrate it in some way, the children selecting the 
right word from the list and pronouncing it ; thus, the 
teacher says, U A dress;" a pupil selects the word 
robe from the list and pronounces it. The teacher 
catches a pupil by the arm forcibly : a pupil finds and 
pronounces grasps. 

Let pupils copy neatly at their seats a part of the 
reading lesson upon their slates and read from the 
copy in the class. 

Occasionally, fora drill in recognizing words rapidly, 
let pupils in turn read the words of a lesson backwards. 

It sometimes renews interest in reading to write the 
lesson upon the blackboard and let pupils read from 
this copy. 

Use supplementary reading, and allow pupils to read 
with little or no previous preparation of words. Of 
course, in the selection of matter to read, care must 
be taken that most of the words are known, or like 
some they know, and can be determined at sight by 
thinking the sounds of the letters. Give each pupil 
time to read his sentence silently before reading it 
aloud. 



READING. 



83 



Drill for Expression. Copy upon the board some 
short extract which the class has not seen, and call 
upon pupils, one by one, to read it. Let there be no 
criticism till all have read. 

For Drill upon Words often Mispronounced. 
Take as many of the following words as you deem 
best for one exercise, write them upon the board, and 
in an opposite column write the correct pronunciation. 
Allow sufficient time for each pupil to become ac- 
quainted with the proper pronunciation a half -day at 
least after which erase the column giving the pronun- 
ciation, and test the pupil's ability to pronounce cor- 
rectly each word of the list : 



Used. 


Exquisite. 


Gallows. 


Dishonest. 


Itinerant. 


Finance. 


Museum. 


Jugular. 


Mischievous. 


Lyceum. 


Sagacious. 


Suffice. 


Precedent. 


Carmine. 


Khedive. 


Allopathic. 


Impetus. 


Condolence. 


Homoeopathic. 


Architect. 


Leisure. 


Allopathy. 


Bitumen. 


Extant. 


Homoeopathy. 


Condemning. 


Precedence. 


Soughing. 


Enervate. 


Fatigue. 


Obligatory. 


Process. 


Bronchitis. 


Combatant. 


Juliet. 


Stolid. 


Indisputable. 


Greasy. 


Telegraphy. 


Apparatus. 


Interesting. 


Photography. 


Covetous. 


Allies. 


Carbine. 


Iodine. 


Quinine. 


Bombast. 


Bromine. 


Vehement. 


Inquiry. 


Prelude. 


Aggrandize. 


Albumen. 



84 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Italian. Patron. Confidant. 

Sacrifice. Pall Mall. Mirage. 

Bade. Abdomen. Livelong. 

Acclimated. Franchise. Nasal. 

Extol. Association. Arab. 

Franchise. Pronunciation. Pleiades. 

Lamentable. Cognomen. 

Exemplary. Bellows. 

Pronunciation of Words Alike in Form but 
Differing in Accent. Let pupils write sentences, 
using the words given below, first as nouns, then as 
verbs, and then read the sentences written, pronounc- 
ing the noun or verb, as the case may be, correctly : 

NOUNS. " VERBS. 

Sur'vey, Survey'. 

Per'fume, Perfume'. 

Ac'cent, Accent'. 

Proj'ect, Project'. 

Des'ert, Desert'. 

Beb'el, Eebel'. 

Overthrow, Overthrow'. 

Ab'stract, Abstract'. 

Con'vert, Convert'. 

Per'roit, Permit'. 

Ex'port, Export'. 

Sus'pect, Suspect'. 

Con'tract, Contract'. 

Pro'test, Protest'. 

A similar plan can be used with those words in 
which the accent of the adjective differs from the 
verb. Then, those forms in which the accent of the 
noun and the verb are the same should not be over- 
looked. 



ARITHMETIC. 85 

CHAPTEE V. 

ARITHMETIC. 

Begin Number with Objects. A child's first in- 
struction in arithmetic should be by means of objects. 
At this period the concrete is more real to him, and 
easier to comprehend, than the abstract. To give him 
an idea of number, use objects. He will understand 
more readily what five means, if five apples are placed 
before him, than by simply saying ' ' Five." By means 
of objects, addition and subtraction will be compre- 
hended with but little effort. A frame with small 
balls upon wires is convenient, but not necessary, as 
books, pencils, pens, etc., will convey the idea of num- 
ber equally well. 

Principles First. In teaching arithmetic, or in 
fact any branch, do not place too much importance 
upon an exact memorizing of the rules. Let princi- 
ples be sought, and rules deduced from these. En- 
courage pupils to invent rules of their own, which will 
serve the same purpose as those given in the book. 
Make an effort to secure original investigation by 
members of the class. 

There should be no reference to the answer while a 
pupil is working an example ; therefore, after a ques- 
tion is stated upon the board, let the books be laid 
aside. 

Bead ch. x., Fitch's " Lectures on Teaching. 



86 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

A Plan for Presenting the Essential Topics 
of Arithmetic in Written Work. 1. Teach nota- 
tion and numeration systematically and by a good 
method, which, for obvious reasons, should be essen- 
tially your own. In the absence of a better plan the 
following might be pursued: 

First Step : What numbers and figures are. 

Second Step : How numbers are grouped. 

Third Step : To read numbers represented by two or 
three figures each. 

Fourth Step : To read numbers represented by more 
than three figures each. 

Writing numbers may be taught in three steps : 

First Step : To write any number less than 10. 

Second Step : To write any number less than 1000. 

Third Step : To write any number whatever. 

In teaching addition two cases occur: 

1. When the sum of each column is less than 10. 

2. When the sum is greater than 10. 
In subtraction three cases arise : 

1. When each figure in the subtrahend is smaller than 
the one above in the minuend, no ciphers being used. 

2. When one or more figures in the subtrahend are 
larger than the corresponding ones in the minuend. 
No ciphers. 

3. When there are ciphers in the minuend and sig- 
nificant figures in the corresponding places in the sub- 
trahend. 

Multiplication may be taught in four cases : 

1. In examples in which no single product will ex- 
ceed nine, one figure in multiplier. 

2. One figure in multiplier, but each figure is greater 
than nine. 

3. Examples with two or more figures in multiplier. 



ARITHMETIC. 87 

4. Examples with ciphers in the multiplicand or 
multiplier, or both. 

Division : The best results will be obtained by taking 
up at once the form of Long Division. For the steps 
in this, see page 106. 

Practical examples, involving two of the funda- 
mental processes, should be given frequently, and in 
such a way as to excite mental activity. Mental and 
written work should go hand in hand. 

Factoring and cancellation should be taught so as to 
give pupils the power of abridging processes in their 
future work, if they so desire. 

Common Fractions may be presented in the follow- 
ing cases : 

1. To change units to improper fractions. 

2. To change mixed numbers to improper fractions. 

3. To change improper fractions to whole or mixed 
numbers. 

4. To change fractions to lower terms. 

5. To change fractions to common denominators. 

6. Addition of fractions. 

7. Subtraction of fractions. 

8. Multiplication of fractions. 

9. Division of fractions. 

10. Fractional relation of numbers. 

Let mental questions be framed if there are not 
enough in the text-book to illustrate each step. Avoid 
all puzzles or questions that are too much involved. 
Example : 

f of -f of 30 is f of how many times i of f of llf ? 

Decimal Fractions: The topics needing special at- 
tention are : 

1. Writing and reading decimals. 

2. Changing common fractions to decimals. 



88 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

3. Changing decimals to common fractions. 

4. Addition of decimals. 

5. Subtraction of decimals. 

6. Multiplication of decimals. 

7. Division of decimals. 

In division of decimals two cases will arise-. 

1. When the number of decimals in the dividend 
equals or exceeds the number in the divisor. 

2. When the number of decimals in the dividend is 
fewer than the number in the divisor. 

In the latter case, show how ciphers maybe annexed 
to the dividend, thus making their number equal the 
number in the divisor, so that one rule will be suffi- 
cient for both cases. 

In teaching Compound Numbers omit all obsolete 
tables. 

Upon teaching Percentage, see page 128. 

Teach interest by but one method, and have no other 
used ordinarily. Examples in proportion to be solved 
by analysis. A few of the simpler problems in men- 
suration should be taught. 

These topics are almost all that need be taught the 
average pupil. 

A Simple Piece of Apparatus for Teaching 
Primary Number. Have a wire stretched behind 
the desk and on it string spools. Teach counting by 
2's, 3's, 4's, etc. Subtraction-tables can be built up by 
using the spools, and also the lower tables of multiplica- 
tion. 

Scheme for Teaching the First Three Or- 
ders of Units. FIRST STEP. As a basis, children 
should have been taught numbers from one to ten ob- 
jectively, and should be able to count to a hundred. 



ARITHMETIC. 89 

Let the teacher write the figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 on 
the blackboard in a column, and ask children to read 
each figure, naming some object after it ; for instance, 1 
chair, 2 desks, 3 pencils, 4 erasers, etc. When the child 
sees clearly that 2 desks means two objects of the same 
kind, and 3 pencils three objects of the same kind, 
the teacher may ask how many ones there are in 2, 
in 3, in 4, etc. When the pupil comprehends that 4 
ones are meant by 4, and five ones by 5, etc., the 
teacher will tell the child that instead of saying that 
there are two ones in 2, we may use a word which 
means the same as one, and say there are two units in 
two. Then let the teacher question as follows: How 
many units in this number? (pointing to 3.) How 
many in this? (pointing to 4, and so on to each.) Some 
one show me a number that has as many units in it as 
I hold up fingers (holding up, two, three, five, eight, 
etc., fingers). 

What does unit mean? 

Ans. One. 

What is a unit? 

Ans. A one. 

Yes, or we may say, " A unit is one, or a single 
thing." 

You may tell me what a unit is? 

Ans. A unit is one, or a single thing. 

Now, class, give me close attention before going to 
seats, as I have a hard question for you, and I want 
every little boy and girl to hold up his hand ready 
to answer my question. 

What is the largest number of units that can be 
written down or expressed by one figure? 

Ans. Nine units. 



90 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Let the above be regarded as the first step in the 
scheme. It will probably take several days to cover 
this first step, as there should be a great deal of drill 
upon each point, and a review of the previous day's 
lesson, before taking up anything in advance. 

SECOND STEP. For the next step the teacher has 
several bundles of splints, each bundle containing ten 
splints. If the teacher is unable to obtain splints, 
small straight twigs of uniform size may be cut and 
tied up in bundles. The teacher now passes bundles 
to several children, asking how many units there are 
in each bundle. 

Ans. Ten units. 

Now, instead of saying here are ten units, we may 
say of this bundle that it is 1 ten. (This point is an 
arbitrary one, and the most direct and logical way is 
to tell it at once to the class.) 

The teacher now gives a different number of bundles 
to different children, and asks: 

What have you? 

Ans. Two bundles. 

What may you say instead of bundles? 

Ans. Tens. 

What have you? tell me again. 

Ans. I have 2 tens. 

The teacher drills in this way with the others who 
were given bundles. 

Teacher (holding up one bundle). What is here? 

Ans. Iten. 

How many units? 

Ans. 10 units. 

Who can write 1 ten on the board in figures? 



AEITHMETIC. 91 

(Holding up two bundles.) What do I hold up? 

Ans. 2 tens. 

How many units? 

Ans. 20 units. 

You may write 2 tens upon the board. 

The teacher continues in this way till 9 tens is 
reached. 

The teacher now holds 2 bundles in one hand and 
three units in the other, and, asking what is in each 
hand, then puts the bundles and splints in one hand, 
asking, What is here? 

Ans. 2 tens and 3 units. 

Or how many units? 

Ans. 23 units. 

Please write it upon the board. 

Now, holding up bundles and units in different com- 
binations, children are asked to write upon the board 
the number of tens and units. Continue in a similar 
manner till children are thoroughly familiar with 
numbers to 99. 

THIRD STEP. Begin this step by review of foregoing 
matter in some such way as, Who can write upon the 
board a number containing tens and units? Read the 
figure which tells the number of units. The figure 
which tells the number of tens. 

The teacher will now have ready several large bun- 
dles containing ten of the smaller bundles. Handing 
one of them to a child, 

How many tens have you in your bundle? 

Ans. 10 tens. 

How many units are there in 10 tens? 

Ans. 100 units. 



92 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Who can write 100 units on the board? 

Taking another bundle, the teacher asks, How many 
units in this bundle? 

Aiis. 100 units. 

(Putting the two bundles together.) How many units 
in these? 

Ans. 200 units. 

Who can write 200 units on the board? 

Same for 300 units. And now, if children have been 
thoroughly taught, such abstract questions as, u Who 
can write 400 units on the board? 500 units?" etc., may 
be asked. 

The rather difficult point of leading children to recog- 
nize the number of tens in 100 units, 200 units, etc., 
now follows. But if the bundles of 100 each, and the 
numbers 100, 200, etc., are used in close relation, the 
difficulty is easily overcome. 

Let the teacher now put in one pile on the desk 1 
bundle of 100 units (10 bundles of ten each), 2 bundles 
of ten each, and five splints, and then ask class how 
many units there are on the table. See that pupils 
recognize there are 1 hundred, 2 tens, and 5 units. 

Who can write a number on the board that shall ex- 
press as many splints as are here on the table? 

Child writes 125. 

Teacher now points to the large bundle, asking child 
to show what figure of the number on the board means 
so many. Pointing to the 2 bundles of 10 each, teacher 
asks for the figure that represents these ; then for the 
figure that represents these (the five single splints). 

Drill with other numbers, as 156, 224, etc. 

Point to the place in which we find units written. 



ARITHMETIC. 93 

Pupil points to the first place. 

In what place do we find the tens? 

Ans. In the second place. 

Where, thinking of the units? 

Here the child will likely say next to the units, and 
must be led to see that he should say to the left of 
units. 

In what place is the hundreds written? 

Ans. In the third place. 

Where, thinking of the tens? 

Ans. To the left. 

Who can tell me what is written in each place? 

Ans. Units is written in first place, etc. 

Who can tell where units, tens, and hundreds are 
written? 

Ans. Units is written in the first place, tens is writ- 
ten in the second place, or to the left of units, and 
hundreds is written in the third place, or to the left of 
tens. 

The teacher should be in no hurry to get to thou- 
sands. Let there be drill upon the above again and 
again, varying as much as possible, so that the whole 
knowledge in these steps sinks deep into the child's 
mind, and is thoroughly assimilated. When that 
time comes, little trouble will be found in teaching 
what remains of Numeration. 

Numeration. When a pupil is able to read any 
number composed of three figures, there is nothing to 
hinder his taking up numbers of two, three, or more 
periods. Let the teacher write on the board a number 
like the following, being careful to separate the periods 



94 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

a little more than would be necessary afterward : 167, 
286, 534. Now, put a book over any two of the groups, 
and let the scholar read the figures of the uncovered 
group. The teacher may now state that when num- 
bers have more than three figures, they are divided 
into groups of three figures each, beginning at the 
right hand. The name given to the second group is 
thousands (teacher writes thousands obliquely above 
that period) ; the name given to the third group is 
millions (teacher writes millions above that group). 
Let the teacher next place a book over the first and 
second periods, and direct the pupil to read what is 
uncovered, and call the name of the group as soon as 
he reads the number. Moving the book along, the 
pupil is asked to read the second period and call the 
name above it. Then pass to the units period. Prac- 
tise now without the book. Next take numbers like 
these : 26,445, 4,262,676, 54,443,666. When able to read 
these without the name of the period written above, 
pass to numbers of four periods. It will be seen that 
when the pupil is ready to take the fourth period, 
nothing is necessary except to give him the name of 
that period. 

While learning to read, some numbers should be 
given him to write. 

Device for Drill with Decades. Write upon a 
sheet of manila-paper, with a small camel's-hair brush 
and common writing-ink, the numbers from to 109 in 
the following order: 



AEITHMETIG. 95 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 


81 


82 


83 


84 


85 


86 


87 


88 


89 


90 


91 


92 


93 


94 


95 


96 


97 


98 


99 



100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 

This table can be made the basis of much useful drill 
in classes of different grades. It is intended that the 
work shall be oral. Let 1 be added to the numbers of 
each decade ; as, 1 and are 1, 1 and 10 are 11, 1 and 20 
are 21, and so on through the first decade. In like 
manner, add 1 to all the other decades. Then add 2, 
then 3, and all the numbers to 9, to each decade. In 
reciting, give to each pupil a decade. 

When in adding 2, the 9th decade is reached, viz., 
adding 2 to 8, the class may be asked what right- 
hand figure is given when 2 is added to 8. They reply, 
" Naught or zero." Here there is an inference for 
them that 2 and 8 give as a right-hand figure. So 2 
and 9 give 1 as a right-hand figure. Then 3 and 7 give 
0, 3 and 8 give 1, 3 and 9 give 2, as right-hand figures. 
The plan can now be readily seen. 

The value of the drill is the facility it gives in add- 
ing. Many persons who find no difficulty in telling 
instantly that 17 and 6 are 23, or that 18 and 7 are 25, 
have to halt a little and think twice to be sure that 77 
and 6 are 83, or that 68 and 7 are 75. Now a pupil, in 



96 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

the drill here suggested, goes through, in the decade of 
7 and 6, the following: 7 and 6 are 13, 17 and 6 are 23, 
27 and 6 are 33, 37 and 6 are 43, 47 and 6 are 53, 57 and 
6 are 63, 67 and 6 are 73, 77 and 6 are 83, 87 and 6 are 
93, 97 and 6 are 103, 107 and 6 are 113. In doing this, 
he learns so thoroughly that 7 and 6 in all combina- 
tions gives 3 as a right-hand figure, that when he adds a 
column of figures he will not hesitate and falter in his 
work when the sum progresses through the forties, 
fifties, sixties, etc. 

The decades can then be taken in reverse order, add- 
ing any number less than 10 to the 10th decade first, 
then to the 9th, and so on. 

It is only requisite to say that the use of the decadal 
table in subtraction is as necessary and varied as it is 
in addition. 

Counting by 2's, 3's, etc. --Variety of drill in 
addition is often secured by asking pupils to start with 
some number and count by 2's, 3's, etc. For instance, 
the child takes 1 as a basis, and counts by 2's as fol- 
lows: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, etc. Then starting from 2, he 
gives 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, etc., carrying the counting as far as 
the teacher deems best, which ought sometimes, in the 
case of larger numbers, to go to 100. 

It will be seen that all the numbers below the one by 
which the counting is done are taken as a basis in 
order to make all the combinations. In counting by 
5's, we should have 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, each as a starting- 
point. 

The above device, as will be readily recognized, is 
substantially the same as the Decades given else- 



ARITHMETIC. 97 

where, except that in the Decades the pupil is aided 
by what the eye sees upon the chart. 

For Oral Practice in Adding and Subtracting 
3, 7, 1 1 . Take the number 3, add it to 1, and succes- 
sively to the sums up to 50. Thus, 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, etc. 
So with sevens: 1, 8, 15, 22, etc. 

Then take some large number, as 70 or 100, and go 
rapidly backwards, taking away three every time, or 
seven, or eleven. 

Borrowing One from the Next Column. 
Primary scholars frequently find it difficult to under- 
stand the reason of "borrowing one from the next 
column" in subtracting one number from another. 
The illustration given below will enable the teacher to 
make it clear to them. Suppose it is required to sub- 
tract 125 from 412. Have a number of one-dollar bills, 
ten-cent pieces, and pennies. Tell the class that the 
pennies will be called units, the ten-cent pieces 
tens, and the one-dollar bills hundreds. The question 
then becomes this : from four bills, one ten-cent piece, 
and two pennies take one bill, two ten-cent pieces, 
and five pennies. Ask the one having the four bills, 
one ten-cent piece, and two pennies to give you five 
pennies. As that will be found impossible, exchange 
the ten-cent piece for ten pennies. The pupil will then 
have twelve, and on giving the five will see that seven 
are left. Then ask for two ten-cent pieces, and as the 
pupil will have none, exchange one of the one-dollar bills 
for ten ten-cent pieces. On giving up two of them, eight 
will be left. After this ask for one one-dollar bill which, 
taken from the three bills left, will leave two. The 



98 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 



child will thus see that there are left two one-dollar 
bills, eight ten-cent pieces, and seven pennies, or 287. 

ANOTHER PLAN Write an example on the board 
in this way : 

744 = 6 hundreds + 13 tens + 14 
367 = 3 + 6 " + 7 

377 3 77 

Explain that 744 is equivalent to 6 hundred, 13 tens, 
and 14. In the same way, explain that 367 is equiva- 
lent to 3 hundreds, 6 tens, and 7. Next show that 7 
cannot be taken from 4, so we borrow one of the tens 
from the 40. 7 tens cannot be taken from 3 tens, so we 
borrow 1 hundred, or 10 tens, which, with the 3 tens, 
makes 13 tens; giving for the whole 6 hundreds, 13 
tens, and 14. Follow the same plan with the other 
number, and complete the subtraction. 

A Form of Drill by Diagrams. Draw upon the 
board the accompanying diagrams with colored cray- 



2 11 


9 18 


1 


6 




4 10 




J V 



ons. The teacher may point to different numbers, and 
the pupil states the result, having used the number in 
the centre of the diagram by adding, subtracting, or 



ARITHMETIC. 99 

multiplying as previously directed. The centre num- 
ber is changed as soon as the combination becomes 
familiar. As seat-work, the pupil may be directed to 
begin with some figure and write upon his slate the 
results, going round the diagram towards the right 
or the left. If there is danger of copying from each 
other, one line of pupils can be directed to go round 
to the right, and another to the left. 

Rapid Addition. Special prominence should be 
given to the combinations of numbers that form ten ; 
as, 9 and 1, 8 and 2, 7 and 3, 6 and 4, etc. Again, the 
pupil should be taught to combine rapidly small num- 
bers into larger numbers, that when placed together 
will form ten; as, 1, 2, 4, and 3. The pupil should say 
simply, seven and three are ten. In adding a column 
of this sort, 3, 3, 4, 6, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 1, 2, the pupil 
should say " ten, twenty, thirty, forty." Of course 
ordinary columns will not always be divisible into 
tens, but the principle holds good that when the eye 
can be trained to see large numbers in the combina- 
tion of small ones as quickly as the individual small 
numbers can be pronounced, there will be a great sav- 
ing of time. 

For Busy Teachers Drill in Fundamental 
Rules. A teacher can save much time and labor by 
the use of a chart in the arithmetic class. 

Take a wide piece of paper and across the top write 
the letters of the alphabet. Under these write any 
numbers that may be desired. If the class is learning 
to add numbers, all that the teacher need say is, " Add 
JT, D, and GL" Or, if the class is in subtraction, multi- 



100 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

plication, or division, "From L takeS," " Multiply H 
by J," etc. 

Fractions can be written instead of whole numbers. 
Dollars and cents can also be used. 

Device for Detecting Incorrect Answers in 
Addition. When pupils have added the numbers 
given, draw a line under the result and direct them 
to add the numbers again, including the answer. If 
the work is correct, the last result will be double the 
first. Pupils will thus prove their own work, and the 
teacher can see at a glance whether the work is cor- 
rect or not, thus saving much time. 

Device for Teaching Multiplication. Have a 
number of lines composed of dots or small disks, mak- 
ing the dots or disks of each line with chalk of a 
different color. To teach the multiplication of two by 
three, for instance, show that the sign of multiplica- 
tion ( x ) means times. Direct pupil to point off three 
yellow dots, then three red dots, How many in all ? 
How many are three taken twice ? How many are 
two times three ? Let the work then be written thus: 
2x3=6. 

Drill in Rapid Adding, Subtracting, Multiply- 
ing, and Dividing. As a general exercise for the 
whole school, just after the session opens in the morn- 
ing, or in the three or four minutes that sometimes 
remain before the time for closing, an example of this 
sort may be given: Let the pupils take their slates 
and add to 20 the number 4, subtract 10, multiply 
by 30, add 80, divide by 5, add 1, multiply by 9, take 



ARITHMETIC. 



101 



away 699. What is left ? Of course, the question can 
be varied in any way, the object being simply to 
induce rapidity and exactness of work. 

If there is not sufficient time for using slates, let the 
teacher give something like the following, requiring 
pupils to solve mentally, keeping up with the exercise 
as stated : Multiply 4 by 6, add 10, add 6, divide by 2, 
multiply by 5, subtract 9, subtract 8, subtract 3, divide 
by . Raise hands all who have an answer. What 
is yours ? yours ? yours ? etc. Those who gave 160 
gave the correct answer. 

Such exercises can be varied, sometimes making 
them so simple that very young students in arith- 
metic can follow them, and again so difficult that only 
the most proficient in school are able to state the 
correct result. 

To Prevent Pupils Learning Tables by Rote. 
This device will afford variety in addition and multi- 
plication, and will to a considerable extent prevent 
pupils from learning the tables by rote or by the com- 
binations of sounds. Write the table on the blackboard. 



5'8 


2's 


3's 


4's 


6's 


TB 


8's 


9's 


IG'8 


10 


12 


7 


6 


4 


12 


3 


9 


11 


6 


3 


9 


3 


9 


9 


2 


6 


4 


11 


6 


4 


9 


6 


11 


7 


12 


6 


5 


4 


8 


10 


10 


5 


8 


7 


10 


4 


9 


6 


12 


3 


10 


12 


11 


5 


1 


7 


12 


7 


1 


4 


10 


4 


3 


3 


2 


3 


11 


11 


6 


9 


10 


7 


7 


11 


5 


4 


5 


3 


11 


3 


12 


12 


5 


10 


8 


12 


2 


6 


1 


9 



102 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Require individual pupils to point out on the black- 
board the combination of the figure in each column 
above the line across the top of the table, with the fig- 
ures below, and give only results : 

Add the column of "5's" downwards and upwards 
until the pupil has thoroughly mastered it. Do not 
allow pupils to repeat five and ten are fifteen, five 
and six are eleven, five and eleven are sixteen, etc., 
but require them to point on the blackboard to each 
figure in the column, and give only results; down- 
wards thus, 15, 11, 16, 10, 9, 6, 8, 12, 17; upwards, 
17, 12, 8, 6, 9, 10, 16, 11, 15. 

Add the other columns in the same manner. 

Rapid Addition by Sums of Ten. Add silently 
and tell how many tens and units in each group. For 
example, 7 + 7 + 7; two tens and one unit. 

6 + 7 + 9 7 + 6 + 7 3 + 9 + 7 

8 + 8 + 6 6+5 + 9 2 + 8 + 6 

In adding, keep the tens' results in the mind: e.g., 
in 6 + 7 + 9, think, 6+4 + 12 = 22; 7 + 6 + 7, think, 
7 + 3 = 10 added to (7 + 3) 10 = 20. The habit of 
separating and combining quickly, so as to see all the 
tens' sums, is easily acquired and greatly facilitates 
rapidity and accuracy of adding. Give many com- 
binations of three units, until the class is quick and 
accurate. Then take four figures, as: 7 + 6 + 7 + 2, 
6 + 6 + 7 + 9, 8 + 7 + 8 + 6. The plan applies to large 
numbers equally as well, as: 

15 + 16 + 17 18 + 19 + 11 17 + 11 + 12 

Value of Zero in Multiplication. In teaching 
addition and subtraction, children readily understand 



ARITHMETIC, 103 

the value of zero. They will say without hesitation 
that4 + Oor + 4 = 4, and that 8 8 = Oor8 = 8. 

But it is not uncommon to find pupils as far ad- 
vanced as fractions, in multiplying, make the mistake 
that 8x0 = 8 or 0x6 = 6. 

For this reason there should be special drill in mul- 
tiplying zero by any number, or any number by zero. 
In building up the multiplication tables the teacher 
can best judge when to give this drill to a class. 

We will suppose, for example, the lesson to be on the 
number eight. Give to each pupil a bundle of eight 
sticks, and let the teacher continue as follows : 

" Put down upon the table one stick at a time till all 
are down. How many times have you put down one 
stick to make eight sticks ?" 

" Eight times." 

Write upon the blackboard 8x1 = 8. 

"All the sticks in hand. Lay them all down at 
once. How many times did you lay them down ?" 

"Onetime." 

Write 1x8 = 8. 

"All the sticks in hand. Put your hands down 
eight times, but lay down nothing each time. How 
many times did you lay down nothing ?" 

" Eight times." 

" What is on the table ?" 

"Nothing." 

" Then 8x0 equals what ?" 

"Nothing." 

Write upon the blackboard 8x0 = 0. 

" Sticks in hand. Put your hands to the table one 
time, but lay down nothing. What is on the table ?" 

"Nothing." 



104 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

" Then 0x8 equals what ?" 

11 Nothing." 

Teacher writes x 8 = 0. 

Rapid Work in Multiplication. As it takes a 
great deal of time to work out even short examples, it 
is well to have a few devices for finding correct an- 
swers without going over the work. 

Take two figures for the multiplicand and two for 
the multiplier; the sum of the units must be ten, and 
the tens must be alike ; for instance, 21 x 29, 32 x 38, 
43 x 47, 54 x 56, 65 x 65, etc. 

The answer is obtained by multiplying the units' fig- 
ures together and keeping the whole amount, adding 
one to one of the tens' figures, multiplying them and 
keeping that whole amount, as 78 x 72. 

Multiply the units' figures together, 2x8 equals 16. 
Keep the whole amount. 

Add one to one of the tens' figures, 7 + 1 = 8; then 
multiply the tens' figures, 8x7 equals 56. Keep the 
whole amount. Ans. 5616. 

Adding ciphers to either multiplicand or multiplier 
will lengthen the examples. 

Rapid Slate Work. The recitation in Arithmetic 
has been finished, and a little time still remains. The 
pupils have their slates or pencil tablets. A simple 
problem is announced, involving principles and pro- 
cesses with which the pupils are familiar, with the 
understanding that the pupil who first gets the correct 
answer may retire from the class to his seat. The 
other members of the class do not continue to work at 
the problem, but a new one is given them immediately, 
on the same conditions as before. This may be con- 



ARITHMETIC. 105 

tinued as long as time permits or the interest lasts. 
The stimulus to work rapidly and accurately is very 
great. Even classes well advanced will enter into such 
a contest with zest. 

Mental Drill in Number. Most pupils can mul- 
tiply by 10, 12, or 15, without writing out the partial 
products. With a little practice they can multiply in 
the same way by any number containing two or three 
figures, and the mental drill acquired by this rapid 
calculation will be of great service through the entire 
work in arithmetic. For example, it is required to 
multiply 42 by 23. 
1st. 3x2 = 6, which write down for the units' figure 

in the product. 

42 2d. (3 x 4) + (2 x 2) = 16. Write down the 6 
for the tens' figure in the product, and reserve 
966 1 to add. 

2x4 = 8+1 = 9, which completes the product. 

1st. 7 x 8 = 56. Write down the 6 as the units' fig- 
ure in the product, and reserve 5 to add. 
68 2d. (7 x 6) + (2 x 8) + 5 (to add) = 63. Write 
down the 3 for the tens' figure in the product, 
1 836 an ^ reserve 6 to add. 

3d. 2 x 6 + 6 =18, which completes the product. 

1st. 5 x 5 = 25. Write down the 5 for the units' fig- 
ure in the product, and reserve 2 to add. 

2d. (5 x 2) + (4 x 5) + 2 = 32. Write down 
125 the 2 for the tens' figure in the product, and re- 
45 serve 3 to add. 

~^~^ 3d. (5 x 1) + (4 x 2) + 3 = 16. Write down 

the 6 for the hundreds' figure in the product, 

and reserve 1 to add. 



106 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

4th. 4x1 + 1 = 5, which completes the product. 

1st. 3x0 = 0. Write down the for the units' fig- 
ure in the product. 

2d. (3 x 6) + (7 x 0) = 18. Write down the 
560 8 for the tens' figure in the product, reserving 
73 i to add. 

40 880 3d ' ( 3 x 5 ) + (? x 6 ) + * = 58 - Write down 
the 8 for the hundreds' figure in the product 
reserving 5 to add. 

4th. 7 x 5 = 35 + 5 = 40, which completes the 
product. 

Teach Long Division before Short Division, 

as short division is seldom used, and after it is taught, 
it lessens in no way the difficulty of teaching long 
division. On the other hand, when a pupil has learned 
long division, the teacher has hut to mention short 
division, show how an example is worked, and the 
pupil takes it without putting further time upon it. 

In long division, the form is the difficult thing. 
We give below a series of examples each representing 
a step. The arbitrary matters about long division 
must be told. See that the pupil has thorough famili- 
arity with each step before going to the next. To 
secure this familiarity, the teacher will have to supply 
other examples similar to each step. 



ARITHMETIC. 



107 



2)426(213 
4 

2 
2 

6 
6 



3)693(231 
6 



3 
3 



4)448(113 
4 

4 
4 

8 
8 



4)8084(2021 
8 




8 
8 

4 
4 



2)496(248 
4 

9 

8 

16 
16 



3)6342(2114 
6 

3 
3 

4 
3 

12 
12 



108 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 



6)672(112 



7 
6 

12 
12 



7)791(113 

7 

9 
7 

21 
21 



8)824(103 
8 



24 
24 



5)905(181 
5 

40 
40 

5 
5 



9)189(21 
18 

9 
9 



9)1890(210 
18 








11)242(22 
22 



11)2420(220 
22 

22 
22 








ARITHMETIC. 109 

12)384(32 25)575(23 

36 50 

24 75 

24 75 



25)3275(131 
25 

77 
75 

25 
25 



Do a great deal of work with divisors containing but 
two figures. A way to pass to divisors of three or 
more figures will now readily suggest itself. 

Of Value in G. C. D. and L. C. M. Any num- 
ber is divisible by three, if the sum of its digits is di- 
visible by three. 

Any number is divisible by four if it end with two 
or more ciphers, or if the number expressed by its two 
right hand digits is divisible by four. 

Any number is divisible by eight if the number 
expressed by its three right-hand figures is divisible 
by eight. 

Any number is divisible by seven, eleven, or thir- 
teen, if the units' period and the thousands' period are 
the same. 

Diagrams for Teaching Fractions. Probably 
no portion of the arithemetic gives more trouble to 



110 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 



scholars than fractions. This difficulty may be les- 
sened to a considerable extent by the use of diagrams. 
For instance, addition and subtraction may be taught 
in this way : 





By these diagrams the pupil will at once see that 
j-f j = i, that i+i=f , that i = f , that i+J+ J = 1. 
He will readily see that i i=i, that 1 f=i. Other 
diagrams of a like nature can be easily invented. 

1$ multiplication a figure of this sort may be used: 





ARITHMETIC!. 



Ill 



The pupil will readily see that of i = |, that of 
1 = , that t of i = -J-. 

Other diagrams will readily occur to the teacher. 

In division the following figure, divided into fifths 
and tenths, will show that f is contained 1J times in \. 



The following diagram will show that | is contained 
twice in f. 



Chart for Teaching Fractions. Addition and 
subtraction of fractions can be taught to advantage 
by taking small circles of different colored papers, 
and dividing them into halves, quarters, etc. After 
cutting them into the divisions required, paste them 
upon a sheet of manilla paper as shown in the dia- 
gram. If, for example, the pupil is required to add 
| to f, by taking circles that are divided into fourths, 
it will be plain to him that the result is f , which he 
will also see is equivalent to li. 



112 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 





ABITHMETIC. 113 

If it is desired to subtract f from a whole number, 
then by taking a circle which is divided into eighths, 
the pupil will see at a glance that f remain. 

Multiplication of Fractions. Let each of the 
pupils be provided with narrow slips of paper. Sup- 
pose it is required to multiply i by f. Direct the 
pupils to divide one of these slips into four equal 
parts. They will then see what is meant by i. They 
should then be directed to divide one of these fourths 
into three equal pieces, and take two of them. The 
class are then asked how many times they can take 
two such pieces from the original paper. It will be 
apparent to them that it would be six times, and that 
in taking these two pieces out once they take a sixth 
part of the whole, or that f of i is \. 

Incorrect Reading of Certain Fractions. 
Many teachers and pupils read the fraction T ^, one 
one-hundredth ; the fraction yf -Q-, two one-hundredths ; 
and in the same way T f ^ yfo, etc. The incorrectness 
of this may be shown by writing the fraction -^ twice 
on the board, and in another place the fraction T | 7 . 
Pointing to the first two, the teacher may ask, " What 
are these? " The pupils must logically say " Two one- 
hundredths." When the teacher points to the other 
fraction, the class must answer "Two-hundredths." 

An Aid in Learning to Read Decimals. Often 
a class finds difficulty in remembering the names of 
the places in decimal notation. Confusion is likely to 
arise when the number of decimal places is four, five, 
six, or seven. For instance, the decimal .42606 will 



114 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

often be read ten-thousandths, instead of hundred- 
thousandths. The difficulty comes from the pupil 
being unable to tell at once whether the fifth place is 
ten-thousandths or hundred-thousandths. A drill upon 
the following scheme would prevent this. Write this 
upon the board: 



, I I II 

Ifg^rii?,; 
-o a .a a -a j 

I I I 3 | I 1 1 

i I I I j i I 1 I 

123456789 

Then ask what is the third place, the sixth place, 
the ninth place. 

The pupil in replying thousandths, millionths, bil- 
lionths, associates in his mind the order third, sixth, 
ninth place, with the guiding names, thousandths, 
millionths, billionths. Let the teacher continue his 
progress by threes through the places of notation, 
by asking next what the name of the first place is, 
what the fourth, what the seventh. After this let the 
scholar discover that the hundredths, hundred-thou- 
sandths, and hundred-millionths places are related 
to the second place in progression by three. When 
the pupil sees these relations, question upon the name 
of the places by calling their numbers until complete 
mastery is obtained. 

Development Lesson in Multiplication of 
Decimals. 
Teacher. Since we first express, read, add, and sub- 



ARITHMETIC. 115 

tract decimal fractions as integers, how shall we mul- 
tiply a decimal fraction by a decimal fraction? 

Pupil. As integers. 

T. Multiply, then, one hundred twenty-five thou- 
sandths by five-tenths. 



.125 
.5 

625 



T. What have you multiplied? 

P. 125. 

T. How does 125 compare in value with .125? 

P. 125 is one thousand times as great as .125. 

T. How, then, does your product compare with the 
true product? 

P. It is one thousand times as great. 

T. How do you find the true product? 

P. By dividing 625 by 1,000. 

T. How do you do this? 

P. By pointing off three places from the right of the 
product. .125 

T. Do this, and read the result? & 

P. Six hundred twenty-five thousandths. .625 

T. By what have you multiplied? 

P. By 5. 

T. By what were you required to multiply? 

P. By .5. 

T. How does 5 compare in value with .5? 

P. 5 is ten times as great as .5. 

T. How, then, does the product .625 compare in 
value with the true product? 



116 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

P. It is ten times as great. 

T. How do you find the true product? 

P. By dividing .625 by 10. -125 

T. Do this, and read the result. 1? 

P. Six hundred twenty-five ten thousandths. .0625 
Solve several examples in the same way, and then 
lead the class to infer the rule. 

Writing Decimals. 1. The pupil must know the 
name and the number of each order, at the right of 
the decimal point. He must have these facts so 
thoroughly fixed in his memory that he can instantly 
give the name of the order if the number is spoken, or 
give the number of the order from the decimal point 
if the name is spoken. 

2. In writing pure decimals, require the pupils to 
place the period on the blackboard first. 

3. Permit no erasing, no numerating, no second 
trial. 

4. The name of any number is determined by the 
position of its right-hand figure with respect to the 
decimal point. 

5. Suppose the teacher to speak the number two 
hundred seventy -eight million ths. The pupil thinks : 

a. Millionths' order is the sixth at the right of the 
decimal point, hence the 8 must stand in that place. 

b. Three figures are required to express two hundred 
seventy-eight, hence three zeroes must precede the 
two. The order then is, period, three zeroes, two, 
seven, eight. When he has thought through the work 
he is ready to use the crayon intelligently. 

The work should be performed very slowly until the 



ARITHMETIC. 117 

pupil has mastered the details of the method. When 
these are under his control, great facility should be 
secured before the matter is left. 

In order that the teacher may discover whether the 
pupils are doing the requisite thinking, the class may 
be required to state what is to be done, or to tell the 
teacher how to write the decimal. 

Suppose the number to be fifty-seven ten-thou- 
sandths. The recitation may take a form similar to 
the following: Ten-thousandths' order is the fourth at 
the right of the point. Two figures are required to 
express fifty-seven, hence the fifty-seven will be pre- 
ceded by two zeroes. The expression consists of the 
decimal point, two zeroes, and fifty-seven. 

Teaching Tables of Weights and Measures. 
1. Measures of Length. Have at hand a foot-rule or 
a stick one foot in length marked into twelve equal 
spaces, also twelve sticks or pieces of card-board one 
inch in length. Draw two perpendicular lines upon 
the blackboard having the space between them one 
inch. Show at the same time one of the inch sticks, 
and tell pupils that the length of the space and the 
stick is one inch. Holding objects one inch apart, ask 
the distance. Ask pupils to draw a line one inch in 
length, two inches, six inches, and so on to twelve. 
Pass the foot-rule to the pupils for them to examine, 
and have each draw one upon the blackboard or upon 
his slate. 

Next, have a stick three feet in length, divided by 
marks into three equal spaces, and tell class that three 
foot spaces equal one yard. Let the pupils practise 
drawing lines one yard long, one yard and one half, 



118 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

one yard and nine inches, etc. Ask one member of 
the class to measure with the yard-stick five and one 
half spaces, and another to measure with the foot- 
rule sixteen and one half spaces. Let them compare 
the two measurements, and then tell them the distance 
between the two points is one rod. Provide the class 
with a line or pole one rod in length, and measure 
distances outside of the schoolroom. If the school- 
grounds are enclosed, it is a good plan to require their 
dimensions in yards or rods. Tell the class that three 
hundred and twenty rod-spaces make one mile. Have 
an object one mile from the schoolhouse observed. 
Ask such questions as : How far to your home ? How 
far to the river ? How far to the nearest city, town, 
or village ? How many times would you have to go 
to a friend whose house is one mile away to equal the 
distance to the nearest town, etc. 

Write upon the blackboard the table of Long Meas- 
ure, and drill thoroughly upon it. Require pupils to 
write it upon their slates. 

Measures of Surfaces. When beginning square 
measure the pupil must first clearly distinguish the 
square inch from the lineal inch. One way of effect- 
ing this is to cut pasteboard or paper into pieces one 
inch square, ask pupils to measure the side, and then 
tell them that a square whose side is one inch is a 
square inch. Require pupils to draw a square inch 
and a linear inch, and compare. Enlarge the square 
inch to two square inches, to four square inches. As 
soon as scholars know a square inch when they see it, 
require them to draw rectangles of various shapes and 
sizes, divide them into square inches, and from the 



ARITHMETIC. 119 

measurements and results deduce the rule for finding 
the area of a rectangle when the sides are given. 

Ask the pupils to draw a square foot, divide it into 
square inches, and calculate the area from the side. 
Do not tell them that there are one hundred forty- 
four square inches in a square foot, but let them find 
it out for themselves. Require pupils to measure the 
sides of hooks, slates, etc., and calculate the areas. 
Prove the work frequently by actual division into 
square inches. 

Pursue the same plan in developing the idea of a 
square yard. It should be drawn upon the blackboard 
and divided into square feet. 

The square rod should be measured on the school- 
ground, using same space measured in teaching a linear 
rod for one side of the square rod, the corners staked, 
and the area calculated in square yards. After the 
pupils thoroughly understand the area of a square rod, 
toll them that one hundred sixty square rods in any 
form are called an acre, and have them locate plots of 
ground each containing one acre. Tell the pupils the 
number of acres in a square mile. 

Write table of Square Measure on the blackboard 
and drill upon it. 

Measures of Solidity. Begin cubic measure by 
teaching the cubic inch with blocks an inch on each 
edge. Let the pupils handle them and tell how they 
differ from a linear inch or a square inch. Ask them 
to pile the blocks into rectangular solids of different 
sizes, observe the dimensions in linear inches, and the 
solidity in cubic inches, and finally deduce the rule 
for finding the contents. 



120 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Use a box one foot on each outside edge to represent 
a cubic foot, and ask the pupil to explain the differ- 
ence between a linear foot, a square foot, and a cubic 
foot. 

Illustrate the cubic yard with a three-inch cube, and 
the cord and cord-foot, which should not be made a 
part of the table, with a block 8 by 4 by 4. 

Complete the work by requiring the contents of 
small boxes in cubic inches, and of larger ones in cubic 
feet. 

Drill upon the table. 

Measures of Capacity. Place before the class a 
set of liquid measures, gallon, quart, pint, and gill, 
and tell them their names. Make a part of the table 
by filling the larger measures with water measured in 
the smaller ones, and complete it by telling the pupils 
the number of gallons in a barrel and in a hogshead. 
Or, if any pupil can find at home an empty water- 
tight barrel, ask him to ascertain, by measuring, the 
number of gallons in a barrel, and allow him to state 
the fact to the class instead of telling them yourself. 

Drill upon the table. 

To teach dry measure, use quart, peck, and half- 
bushel measures. Build up the table by measuring, 
using sand or corn. Compare the dry quart with the 
liquid quart. Drill by asking such questions as, 
How many quarts in a half -bush el ? How many 
pecks are required to fill a two-bushel sack ? etc. Ask 
them to name articles measured by dry measure, by 
liquid measure. 

Drill upon the table. 



ARITHMETIC. 121 

Measures of Weight. Teach avoirdupois weight 
by bringing before the class ounce, two-ounce, quarter- 
pound, half-pound, and pound weights. Ask questions 
which require class to change ounces to pounds and 
pounds to ounces. Tell them the number of pounds 
in a hundredweight and the number of hundredweight 
in a ton. Drill thoroughly upon the table, using the 
abbreviations and symbols. 

In apothecaries' weight lead class to see that sixteen 
druggists' ounces equal a liquid pint. 

Measure of Time. Direct the pupils' attention 
to the clock, and ask them to notice lapses of time till 
they have a good idea of various short periods, such as 
five seconds, thirty seconds, one minute, five min- 
utes, etc. Ask them the length of each intermission 
of the school-work, the length of time passed in school 
each day. Explain the artificial division of the day 
into two parts, and how the morning hours are distin- 
guished from those of the afternoon. The number of 
days in each month should be thoroughly learned (see 
page 129), and each pupil should know the date of his 
birth, and be able to tell his exact age at the time of 
reckoning. 

Circular Measure. It is very difficult for young 
pupils to comprehend the true nature of circular meas- 
ure, and a thorough comprehension of it ought not to 
be expected till geometry is reached. However, pupils 
readily understand the division of a circle into parts. 
Draw a circle upon the blackboard, and begin with 
telling pupils that every circle is divided into three 
hundred and sixty parts, called degrees. Draw diam- 



122 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

eters so as to divide the circle into four equal parts, 
and ask how many degrees in each part. Tell pupils 
that each angle made by the diameters is a right angle 
or an angle of ninety degrees. Ask pupils to draw 
right angles upon their slates, upon the blackboard, 
and to point out right angles in the schoolroom. Lead 
them to recognize angles less than a right angle or 
acute angles, and angles greater than a right angle or 
obtuse angles. Divide one of the right angles in the 
circle that has been drawn into two equal angles, and 
ask what kind of an angle each is, and how many de- 
grees it contains. In this way a pupil may be given 
some elementary ideas about circular measure. 

United States Coins. The most practical work a 
pupil can do in studying United States money is to 
handle the coins and use them. They will likely 
know the name, appearance, and relative value of the 
different coins, but will need drill in computing the 
cost of articles sold by the yard and pound, in count- 
ing the requisite sums for payment, and in making 
change. 

Divisions of Time To Vary Number Work. 

Write upon the blackboard the following: 
There are months in a year. 
There are weeks in a year. 
There are days in a year. 
There are days in a month. 
There are days in a week. 
There are hours in a day. 
There are minutes in an hour. 
There are weeks in a month. 



ARITHMETIC. 123 

There are seconds in an hour. 
There are seconds in a minute. 
After the blanks have been properly filled ask such 
questions as : 

How many minutes in 3 hours ? 
How many hours in 2i days ? 
How many months in six years ? 
How many weeks in i of a year ? 
How many months in i of a year ? 
How many weeks in 3 years ? 
How many hours in 4 days ? 
How many days in 4 years ? 
How many hours in 3i weeks ? 

Steps in Arithmetic. Giving steps in arithmeti- 
cal solutions is an excellent method of impressing 
operations upon the minds of pupils. 

Thus, in the addition of fractions, after preparing 
the class to reduce fractions to lowest terms, find the 
least common multiple of given denominators; and 
to change to similar fractions rapidly, the following 
steps should be written in some conspicuous place on 
the board: 

STEPS FOR THE ADDITION OF FRACTIONS: 

1. Eeduce the given fractions to lowest terms. 

2. Find the least common multiple of the denomi- 
nators. 

3. Change to similar fractions. 

4. Add the numerators. 

5. Change results to a whole or mixed number. 

6. Reduce fractional part of answer to lowest terms. 



124 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

An example being then placed on the board, six 
pupils may each take one of the steps given, as fol- 
lows: 

Example: | + J + + J = , 

Recitation 

1. John. All the fractions except are in their low- 
est terms. (Changes f to j.) 

2. Chas. The least common multiple of 6, 2, 4, and 
3 is 12. (Writes : L. C. M. or L, C. D. equals 12.) 

Ethel. The third step is to change to similar frac- 
tions. ( Writes and recites, arranging in this order for 
convenience.) 

Five sixths equals ten twelfths; one half equals six 
twelfths, etc. 

5. 1 J _? _ 

6 2 4 3 " 

10 6_ _9_ _8 
12 12 12 12 

4. Clarence. The fractions added equal f f . 

5. Maud. Thirty -three twelfths is an improper frac- 
tion. It equals 2 and T 9 ^. 

(Trace. The fraction T V is equal to f . The answer is 
2 and f . 

Problems may be taken in a similar manner; thus, 
in the following problem : 

After J of the pupils of a school have left, and f have 
been promoted, what part remains ? 

Mary. In this problem two operations are to be per- 
formedaddition and subtraction. 

Morrill. The first step is, add and f to find how 
many pupils are gone from the school. 



ARITHMETIC. 125 

Allen. The second step is, subtract the result from 
the whole number to find how many or what part re- 
mains. 

This is an excellent plan for keeping the attention of 
a large class. 

Children like details. 

Percentage- If you have had difficulty in teach- 
ing Percentage, finding that your pupils at length be- 
come confused with formulas and the terms "Base," 
" Rate," " Percentage," etc., drop these and teach Per- 
centage as a part of common fractions. 

The applications of fractions to percentage are as 
follows : 

1. What are f of 20 ? 

2. 12 is | of what number ? 

3. 12 is what part of 16 ? 

The first work in percentage should be a review of 
these problems. Use fractions having 100 for a denom- 
inator a great deal; also fractions representing the 
most common per cents, such as , , -J-, |, f , f , . 

Then require pupils to change these and similar 
fractions to lOOths; after this require them to rewrite 
and read, using the term per cent instead of the de- 
nominator 100. 

Now it is best to take up the work in an opposite 
way ; for instance, give examples with the term per 
cent and require the pupil to rewrite and read, using 
the denominator 100 or the fraction in its lowest terms. 

Give a great number of exercises in changing com- 
mon per cents to corresponding fractions, and the re- 
verse. 

Assign examples like the following, and let pupils 



126 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

state them as examples in fractions : u A dealer having 
120 bales of hay, lost f of it by fire ; how many bales 
were lost?" would then read, " What is f of 120 bales? 

Such drill will teach the pupil that he must first de- 
cide what an example requires before he attempts to 
solve it. 

Let there be a great deal of original work in the way 
of pupils bringing in problems of their own inventing ; 
for when a pupil can make and solve his own examples 
upon percentage he has mastered a knowledge of its 
principles. 

It will be seen that by the use of these simple forms, 
which represent all possible problems in percentage, 
the use of " cases," and the terms Base, Difference, 
etc., have been avoided, and that, therefore, the pupil 
has not been told in a difficult and roundabout way 
what he already knows in a simple and direct way. 

Take now some percentage topic, as Profit and Loss. 
All through the work up to this point the terms 
" Gain, " " Loss," "Cost," "Selling Price," have been 
used, and they need no further definition here. All 
that is necessary is to impress the pupil with the fact 
that gains, losses, and selling price are reckoned on 
the cost, or are a part of it. Make no cases here. Give 
examples of every kind, and the pupil will place them 
under the proper form with no assistance. Putting 
examples under special cases dulls the discriminating 
power of a pupil. 

As an illustration of the solution of problems the 
following is added: 

1. A manufacturer sent a commission merchant 
$3,675 to buy cotton for him. What is the commission 
at 5 per cent? 



ARITHMETIC. 127 

Solution. $3,675 == cost of cotton 4- commission. 

- commission. 

20 

r = cost of cotton. 

21 

-- = cost of cotton and commission. 

Therefore, -^ = $3,675. 

1 

20 : 

2. Bought a second-hand wagon for $48.12, and sold 
it so as to gain 16f per cent; what was the selling 
price ? 

Solution. $48.12 = cost. 
1 
6 = 



7 

5- = selling price. 

D 

I = 8.02. 

7 
Therefore, ^ = $56.14, selling price. 

3. An agent charged $46.75 for selling a quantity of 
oats. What was the sum returned to the grower, if 
the agent's rate of commission was 24 per cent ? 

Solution. $46.75 is the commission. 

24 per cent = -r^. 



128 SCHOOL DEVICES. 



- r- = commission. 
40 

- selling price. 

40 1 39 

40 " 40 = 49' amount 



39 
Therefore, ^ = $1823.25, the amount returned. 

Drill for Percentage. In order to show how all 
fractions can he changed into per-cents, draw four per- 
pendicular lines on the board, and in the first column 
write a common fraction; in the next the same value 
written as hundredths, and in the last the same as per 
cent. Thus: 

Com. Fraction. As hundredths. As per-cents. 

i 50 hundredths .50 

4 33i " .331 

Write a numher of common fractions and let the pu- 
pil fill out the other two columns. 

Give Frequently Examples in Words instead 
of Figures. In giving original examples, let them 
frequently be given in words, not figures. The arith- 
metical questions which arise in actual life are not in 
the shape of figures, but we translate them into these 
from our usual form of speech. Therefore, examples 
given in the form of words are much easier to solve, 
because more natural. 

Aids in Interest. An easy way to state fractions 
of a month, provided the number of days is divisible 
by 3, is by placing them in the form of tenths, thus : 



ARITHMETIC. 129 

3 days = .1 month; 6 days = .2; 9 days = .3; 12 days 
= .4; 15 days = .5; 18 days = .6; 21 days = .7; 24 
days = .8; 27 days = .9. Two months and eighteen 
days would be written thus: 2.6 months. 

It is worth remembering that from any day of any 
month to the same day of the following month, there 
are as many days as in the first-mentioned month. 

Number of the Month. It is necessary for work- 
ing problems in interest that the pupil be able to tell 
instantly the number of each month in the year. 
Too many teachers pass this matter without giving it 
any attention. A little drill upon the following scheme 
will make pupils confident of the number, instead of 
having to count, as many are obliged to do. 

Write the abbreviations of the months in order 
upon the board, numbering them. At once it will be 
seen that March, the first month of spring, is the third 
month ; that June, the first of the summer months, is 
the sixth; that September, the first of the autumn 
months, is the ninth; that December, the first of the 
winter months, is the twelfth. With these firmly 
fixed, the number of any other month is told instantly. 
For instance, May is the fifth month, being immedi- 
ately before June, the sixth. It is perhaps well to add 
in this place that it is just as important the pupil 
should know the number of days in each month. Do 
not teach that old quatrain " Thirty days hath Sep- 
tember," etc., for the pupil will rely upon it at first, 
and is afterwards never able to get rid of it. 

Every one knows the number of days in February. 
Then all the other months have thirty-one days except 
four. All, then, that need be done is to drill thor- 



130 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

oughly that April, June, September, and November 
are the months having thirty days each. 

Form for Partial Payments. Where a number 
of payments are given, the whole work will be pre- 
served and the operation made plain to the student if 
the work is stated as shown below. The dates are all 
placed one above the other in proper order, with the 
earliest date at the bottom. Subtract this last date 
from the next above and place the result below the 
line. Subtract this last date from the one next above 
it, and place the number of years, months, etc., below 
the first number of years and months, and so on for 
all the dates, connecting each date with its own re- 
sulting years, months, and days by a dotted line. At 
the right may be placed the interest of $1 for the given 
time, and at the right of the dates may be placed the 
payments. The annexed work will show what is 
meant. 



187810-23 

1876 22 $25. 

1873 4 5 $200. 

1872 1 1 $100. 
1868 6 5 



3_ 6-26.. ..2141 

1 3 4. ...075f 

2 9 27.... 1691 

2 8 21. ...1631 

To Insure Thorough Understanding of 
Cube Root. In teaching cube root by blocks and 
in this connection it is well to remind teachers that in 
this subject blocks should be used if possible, as in no 
other way can the work be made equally clear send 



AEITHMETW. 131 

the pupil to the board to extract the cube root of a 
number, and, when he has found the root, direct him 
to explain, illustrating each step with the blocks as he 
proceeds. Be sure that the pupil handles the blocks as 
he explains. In this way it is possible to see if he is 
familiar with each step of the work. 
Read chapter xi. Fitch's " Lectures on Teaching." 



132 SCHOOL DEVICES. 



CHAPTER VI. 

PERSONAL SUGGESTIONS. 

Preparation of Work. A certain amount of 
preparation for each lesson is an absolute necessity. 
The general plan and arrangement of the subject must 
be made beforehand, in order to gain the full value of 
the lesson, for there is not time to decide on the spur 
of the moment the most important parts, or how they 
shall be presented. 

In every recitation, the two principal points to which 
the attention should be directed are the calling-up of 
that previously learned (review), and the imparting of 
new knowledge (advance work). In doing this, the 
teacher will find it most profitable to take up that part 
of the review most intimately connected with the 
advance work, thus leading the pupil on logically 
from one truth to another. In a thoughtful prepara- 
tion of a subject, these questions naturally arise: 
What portion of the review work leads most easily 
into the advance work? What parts of the advance 
work shall be brought into the greatest prominence? 
What questions shall be asked, and how comprehensive 
an answer required? In what way and to what extent 
may the blackboard be used? What amount of time 



PERSONAL SUGGESTIONS. 133 

shall be devoted to each division of the work? Many 
minor points can also be introduced, which will in- 
crease the interest in the subject and make the recita- 
tions spirited. Without such a preparation, all efforts 
in teaching will be rambling and, in great part, point- 
less. 

Eead the chapter, The Practice or Art of Education, 
in Payne's " Lectures on Education." 

Assisting Pupils. Teachers almost universally 
help their pupils too much, both in explanation of dif- 
ficult points, and in questioning suggesting the an- 
swer by the form of the question. The instructor 
falls into the former error by misconceiving the object 
for which pupils are sent to school. This is not, or 
at least should not be, to gain information, but for 
mental training. Many teachers reason thus: "This 
scholar cannot solve this problem ; he must not leave 
the room until he can see just how it is done." If this 
example were to be the only hard thing the pupil 
would have to solve in life, such reasoning might be 
fairly sound; as it is, there is no more reason why 
help should be given on this particular problem than 
on the thousand and one others equally as hard which 
could easily be constructed, and which the scholar 
will meet again and again in life. If the pupil would 
lay to heart the explanation, and profit by it in the 
time to come, the case would be different, but in nine 
cases out of ten, so long as the correct answer is ob- 
tained, the student is satisfied, and promptly banishes 
the whole thing from his mind. 

Students are not urged to work half hard enough on 
the difficult places, which would afford the very best 



134 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

kind of mental training, if only encouragement to per- 
severe were given instead of actual assistance. It is 
far better to go slowly, and let it be regarded a dis- 
grace to own one's self to be beaten by a lesson, or any 
portion of it, rather than to attempt to "get over" a 
certain number of pages in a term. 

Teacher's Note-book. New ideas and ways of 
teaching are constantly occurring to a progressive 
teacher, both in his own experience and in that of 
others that falls under his notice. Many of these will 
be lost unless they are written down at once. Let 
these hints and helps be placed in a note-book, arranged 
in some simple order under special headings. Apt 
illustrations that can be used in the various studies 
taught, should be preserved as one happens upon them. 

Special Topics. A teacher frequently runs over 
in his mind the special points he wishes to bring up in 
a recitation. Some of these he may remember, while 
others will be forgotten. Use a slip of paper with 
these special points written upon it. 

Ten Rules for Losing Control of a School. 

1. Neglect to furnish each pupil plenty of suitable 
seat-work. 

2. Make commands that you do not or cannot se- 
cure the execution of. Occasionally make a demand 
with which it is impossible to comply. 

3. Be frivolous, and joke pupils to such an extent 
that they will be forced to talk back. In this way 
they will soon learn to be impertinent in earnest. Or 
be so cold and formal as to repel them. 



PERSONAL SUGGESTIONS. 135 

4. Allow pupils to find out that they can annoy you. 

5. Promise more in your pleasant moods than you 
can perform, and threaten more in your cross moods 
than you intend to perform. 

6. Be so variable in your moods that what was al- 
lowable yesterday will be criminal to-day, or vice 
versa. 

7. Be overbearing to one class of pupils and obsequi- 
ous to another class. 

8. Utterly ignore the little formalities and courtesies 
of life in the treatment of your pupils in school and 
elsewhere. 

9. Eegard the body, mind, and soul of a child utterly 
unworthy of study and care. Let it be a matter of 
indifference to you whether a child is comfortable or 
uncomfortable. Kegard it unimportant why a child 
enjoys one thing and dislikes another, and that it 
is not your business to aid him in forming a worthy 
character. 

10. Let your deportment toward parents and officers 
be such as will cause a loss of their respect and confi- 
dence. 

One or more of these rules carefully executed will 
secure the end in view. 

Class Management. Strive to govern by the 
eye, not by the voice. Stand well back from your 
class so as to see every pupil. Seat dull, backward, 
and restless pupils in front. Separate mischievous 
children. 

2. Give as few orders as possible, but be firm in 
having them promptly and thoroughly obeyed when 
given. 



136 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

3. Remember that good discipline is impossible with 
children unemployed. Allow no waste of time in be- 
ginning. 

4. Avoid speaking in a loud, blustering tone. Be 
ever on the alert, and warn when necessary. Do not 
scold, and never threaten. 

5. Give careful attention to details. Study your 
pupils and know them. 

6. Never sneer at children. Be cautious not to 
dampen their natural ardor and gayety. 

7. Authority should be felt, not seen. The need for 
much punishment means in nearly all cases, weak 
handling. If children are troublesome, look to your- 
self first. 

Criticism. The following points of criticism are 
introduced to aid teachers in criticising their own or 
others' work. It must prove of benefit to a teacher 
to ask himself, seriously, u Have I zeal and anima- 
tion in my manner of conducting a recitation? Have 
I sympathy and interest in those who are under my 
care? Is my plan logical and my matter correct?" 
I. Manner. 

1. Animation. 

2. Variety. 

3. Expression of sympathy and interest. 
II. Teaching. 

1. Correctness of matter taught. 

2. Thoroughness. 

3. Emphasis on important points. 

4. Rapidity. 

5. Conciseness. 

6. Variety, frequency, and emphasis in drill. 



PERSONAL SUGGESTIONS. 137 

IH Order. 

1. Attention gained and maintained. 

2. Prompt and cheerful obedience. 

3. Quietness, steadiness, and interest with 
which scholars work. 

The Language of the Teacher. It is of the 
greatest importance that one who is to give instruc- 
tion should make such use of language as will con- 
vey the exact meaning intended, without a possibility 
of misconception. The unwise choice of a word often 
acts like a misplaced switch at a railroad centre, the 
thinker is thrown off on the wrong track. It is no 
defence for the teacher to say that his powers of ex- 
pression are not good ; it makes him only a confessedly 
poor teacher, since the essential difference between 
good and poor teaching is the ability, or inability, to 
make ideas clear to the mind of the pupil. By the 
careless use of words, ideas wholly different from 
those intended to be conveyed, may become fixed in 
the scholar's mind, that will never be eradicated. 
Precision can be acquired by the diligent study of 
synonymes, and by a constant effort on the part of the 
teacher to make his words express the exact idea in- 
tended ; and to do this he must train himself to habits 
of exact thought. If the thought does, not stand out, 
sharply defined, in one's own mind, it is idle to expect 
it to be clearly seen by others. 

Points Relative to Recitations. There is far too 
much machine work in the way some teachers " hear 
a lesson." It is not enough that one should listen to 
that which has been prepared, assign an advance 



138 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

lesson, and then dismiss the class. When a recita- 
tion is regarded by the teacher in this light, the 
pupils will naturally and surely come to regard the 
lesson as a task ; and when this occurs, interest will 
fail. There are a number of points that should be con- 
sidered in every recitation: 1. The pupils' powers of 
observation should be brought into prominence. 2. 
They should be taught to reason out that which is dif- 
ficult. 3. They should be taught to recall that which 
has been prepared before, bearing upon the same 
subject. 4. An easy, graceful mode of expressing 
ideas should be cultivated. 5. The pupils should be 
aided as much as possible in acquiring confidence and 
an easy manner of reciting. 6. The teacher must give 
some positive knowledge, supplementary to that con- 
tained in the lesson. Text-books should be used 
merely as suggestions for lessons. 
Other points to be considered are these: 
The hearing of the lesson, in order to see how much 
of it the pupil comprehends. Explaining that which 
the pupil is not able to comprehend. Drilling on the 
review to fix in mind that which has already been 
learned. The assignment of the next lesson. Some 
time should be spent in looking over the advance 
lesson, and in suggesting ways by which the pupils can 
avoid difficulties and arrive at the correct results 
most easily; but in doing this, do not give too much 
help. The teacher's province is to direct and suggest 
ways and means. 

Creating Doubt. In calling the attention of pu- 
pils to a mispronounced word, give the correct pro- 
nunciation and stop there. Do nqt say, for instance. 



PERSONAL SUGGESTIONS. 139 

"This word is pronounced franchiz not franchiz;" 
for this eventually leads to doubt as to which is cor- 
rect. There are scores of other ways in which a 
teacher, unless careful, will destroy the permanency of 
impressions, by leaving in the mind some accompani- 
ment that at last will simply create doubt. 

On Explanation. In explaining a fact to a pupil, 
it is important that the teacher be first thoroughly 
familiar with it himself. He cannot make a point 
clearer to another than it is to his own mind. He 
should also consider the ability of the pupils before 
him. With some it is necessary to use much more 
careful explanation than with others; therefore, to 
reach the intelligence of all, make the idea simple, 
clear, and to the point. The teacher, however, should 
not use such language as will imply that he regards 
himself talking to inferior intellects. Acts of conde- 
scension on the part of the teacher will surely be re- 
sented, as they should be. A figurative illustration 
should be used only when it makes the thought 
clearer; and all novel forms of expression, or odd 
ways of putting things, should be used with care, as 
they may hide the thought intended to be conveyed. 

Using a New Word. When a teacher uses a new 
word in his work, he should write that word upon the 
board, so that its form may come to the eye just after 
the sound reaches the ear. In this way the student 
will associate the correct pronunciation with the 
proper form of the word. 

Questioning. Particular attention should be 



140 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

given by a teacher to his manner of stating questions. 
The points to be aimed at are: First, clearness ; the 
pupil has a right to demand this. Second, such a 
statement of the question as will not suggest the an- 
swer. Third, a question should not be asked in this 
way: "The Scotch came into the northern part of 

?" Answer. " England." Nor thus: "Is it ? 

or ^ it f " The pupil very quickly learns to read 

the correct answer in the manner or tone of voice used 
by his instructor. It is hardly necessary to add that 
good English should be used in the statement of a 
question. In asking for a definition of the planets, 
for instance, it is a defect to say, "The planets are 
what?" Or, in chemistry, " A molecule is what?" 

A Mistake Often Unrecognized. The word 
Louisiana is mispronounced by many teachers who 
are usually correct in their pronunciation, by giving 
to the second syllable, which should have the sound 
of short i, the sound of long e. The reason for the 
mistake arises from the spelling given by Webster, to 
indicate the pronunciation, Loo'-e-ze-a'-na, printing 
the second syllable "e" and placing the secondary 
accent on the first syllable. Now, if the word is pro- 
nounced with the secondary accent on the first sylla- 
ble, the second syllable must have the sound of ob- 
scure " e," which does not differ materially from the 
short sound of "i." 

A Caution. Henceforth, see if you cannot pro- 
nounce the word "recess" properly, putting the ac- 
cent on the last syllable. 



PERSONAL SUQ&mTIONS. 141 



Expostulation.- You talked in a high key all day. 
There was something unpleasant in your work, and 
you did not know what it was. What is spoken un- 
pleasantly is heard unpleasantly, and your pupils felt 
there was something grating, something unpleasant, 
in their teacher's work. They could not tell, perhaps, 
what it was, but, nevertheless, they felt that something 
was not what it ought to be. It was the high tone of 
voice that you persisted in using, which has become 
so fixed a habit with you that you can scarcely break 
it. Your voice has become rasping, thin, and hard. 
It will take weeks, perhaps months, of persistent ef- 
fort before you can overcome the habit and keep your 
voice where it belongs, in low, smooth tones. 

Don'ts. Don't be afraid to say, * ' I don't know, " or, 
if necessary, "I was mistaken." If an error has been 
made, it is both more manly and more profitable to ac- 
knowledge it. You are setting a bad example and 
lowering yourself in the estimation of your pupils if 
you persist in maintaining that which you see is false. 
Teachers are too loath to confess ignorance on any sub- 
ject that may be brought up by the pupils. A teacher 
cannot be expected to be informed on all subjects, and 
it is better to admit that you do not know than to give, 
at a venture, a reply that may be misleading. 

Don't get into the way of using the index finger in 
gesture, as many teachers do. It is neither graceful 
nor forceful. 

When a pupil has given an incorrect answer, do 
not shake the head and say No, no, but quietly ask 
the question of another. 

In your illustrations and talks, quote nothing, 



142 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

through temptation to say something amusing, that 
does not fit accurately and logically your topic. 

Don't talk over school matters with every one you 
meet. They will perhaps talk to you ahout former 
teachers, and your part of the conversation may be 
misconstrued and enlarged upon. A teacher must be 
discreet. 

Especially do not make complaints. Do not criticise 
your predecessor's work, or the condition in which 
you find the school. He probably left friends, and of 
these you will thus make enemies. Speak kindly of 
those who were before you, or do not speak of them at 
all. If it is necessary to make complaints, let them 
be made to the proper school officers. Your school 
will be more successful if it is the subject of but little 
comment. 

Do not say, when hearing a recitation, u Gk> on, 
" Go ahead," " Proceed," etc. It is far better to set an 
example of courtesy to your pupils by saying, " Con- 
tinue, Mary," or " Continue, John." 

Do not scold. After the novelty has worn off, your 
sharp speeches will cease to be effective. Moreover, 
the most forcible language is that which is delivered 
calmly and dispassionately. Gentlemanly and lady- 
like bearing toward pupils on the part of teachers is 
almost sure to win a like return. 

Treat your pupils as equals. Nothing will bring 
them up to your own level as quickly as this. Make 
your pupils self-respectful by showing respect to them. 

Don't worry. Make a vigorous effort to throw aside 
all care when school closes. Remember that nothing 
is to be gained, but much lost, by carrying through 
the twenty -four hours the burdens that should come 



PERSONAL SUGGESTIONS. 143 

only during school hours. If the teacher can enter the 
schoolroom fresh each morning, the battle is half won 
at the beginning. 

Don't be more ready to criticise than to commend. 
Factious criticism will cause pupils to think that noth- 
ing they can do will be just right in the teacher's eyes, 
and they will soon cease trying to excel. A few words 
of commendation will often prove a great incentive 
to effort. 

Do not make any sudden or radical change in your 
manner of conducting a recitation, or in the discipline 
of your school. If you have decided to make a change, 
do it gradually. 

Do not get into the habit of making apologies. Be 
careful that the occasion does not arise where an apol- 
ogy by the teacher is needed. 

It is natural that a teacher, dealing with minds less 
informed than his own, should gradually come to feel 
above the general level of humanity. Don't allow 
yourself to become conceited by reason of your sur- 
roundings. 



144 SCHOOL DEVICES. 



CHAPTER VII. 

SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 

Seating Pupils. A large proportion of the dis- 
order and consequent worriment incident to a school- 
room would be obviated if teachers would seat all 
pupils at the beginning of each year or term. It is 
the custom in many schools for the pupils to choose 
their own seats, and thus numerous cliques of mis- 
chievous scholars are brought together, resulting in 
continual trouble to the teacher. An effort should be 
made to seat pupils as far remote from each other as 
possible, while special care should be taken to separate 
widely such as are likely to cause annoyance. The 
value of a teacher's work is often seriously impaired 
in consequence of diverted attention. A schoolroom 
should be self -regulating, as far as possible, and wis- 
dom in seating pupils will do much toward securing 
this. 

Beginning School. Be at the schoolroom early. 
On the morning of the first day be the first one there, 
and, in general, the teacher should be present when the 
room is opened. A spirit of lawlessness is apt to arise 
among pupils left without restraint, which may ex- 
tend beyond the opening of the session. 

Begin promptly. Scholars cannot be expected to be 
prompt in their attendance if the teacher does not set 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 145 

the example. Care in having all things move by 
" clock-work" is not lost in its general effect on a 
school. 

Say but little when opening your school. Especially 
do not lay down a great number of rules these can be 
made as occasion demands. Do not boast of what you 
can do, or of what you intend to do. Children are 
keen to detect boastfulness and to discredit those who 
make use of it. 

Take the names as the classes are called. This will 
save much confusion and loss of time. If, however, 
the teacher desires all the names at the opening of the 
session, blank slips should be distributed, on which the 
pupil may write his name and the classes he proposes 
to enter. 

Set all the pupils to work as soon as possible. Idle- 
ness is the precursor of mischief, and this on the first 
day means continual trouble. If the classes cannot be 
formed at once, give those who are \ waiting some re- 
view work, or tell them a short story and ask them to 
write it out on their slates or on paper. 

Make out an Order of Exercises for your own use be- 
fore opening the school. Even though it be your first 
term in the school, you can find out from the pupils or 
school officers what classes are to be formed. You 
can thus intelligently organize the school. 

Show no sign of indecision. Pupils are quick to no- 
tice this, and make their estimate of your character 
accordingly. Hesitation is confessed weakness. 

On the second day have a permanent Order of Exer- 
cises made out and posted. Uncertainty in regard to 
the time of their recitations demoralizes the pupils and 
delays the actual commencement of work. 



146 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Putting Back. It is a mistake to put children 
back in their studies. It has a disheartening effect, 
and it can easily be seen at what a disadvantage a 
child is placed who has lost interest in a study. There 
is no necessity for putting back. The fundamental prin- 
ciples of any study can be taught in one place as well as 
in another. If a child in percentage stumbles over his 
fractions, give him extra help and make that subject 
clear to him. If your pupils in an advanced grade 
cannot write a simple sentence correctly, put them 
into rhetoric and take up sentence-writing. If they 
are in the Fourth Reader when they should be in the 
Second, don't discourage them by putting them back 
into the Second Reader, but get some simple story- 
books or bright story-papers and let the reading les- 
son be from these. The best " putting back " is when 
the pupil himself perceives his deficiency and feels 
the need of simpler work ; but the teacher should ex- 
ercise tact in bringing about this condition of mind. 

A Few Suggestions Upon Discipline. It is 
hard to write it, but cases of truancy, fighting, vul- 
garity, profanity, and stealing do occur in many 
schools. In cases of truancy, communicate with the 
parents at once; reason with the pupil, and as a last 
resort call on the truant officer or constable. 

For untruthfulness, let the pupil feel what it is to 
have others lose confidence in him. Often it will be 
well to let him realize this loss of confidence a long 
time. 

In cases of fighting, keep the pupil in at recesses, 
giving him his recess after the others ; oblige him to 
come into the schoolroom as soon as he comes upon 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 147 

the ground, morning and noon, and keep him after 
school until others have gone home. 

For profanity and vulgarity, separate the pupil en- 
tirely from others, and suspend for second offence. 

Stealing may be pretty effectually dealt with by sus- 
pension, apology, and restoration of the stolen article. 

Impertinence and disrespect to the teacher, providing 
the teacher has not brought it on, should be apologized 
for in presence of those before whom the act was com- 
mitted. 

Punishments. The nearer you can reduce punish- 
ments to a minimum the better. Occasions sometimes 
arise, however, when some f orm of punishment seems 
necessary ; but in inflicting this be careful not to in- 
jure the pupil's self-respect. Personal indignities or 
torture should never be used, and any form of ridicule 
should be used sparingly. The pupil should never be 
made to feel that he is punished by his teacher through 
any vindictive feeling. Threats of punishment should 
not be made. Act promptly when occasion demands, 
but do not talk about what you will do. It seems 
hardly necessary to add that study should never be 
used as a means of punishment. 

A Problem. Many teachers have found that the 
root of all evil in teaching is whispering, and it is a 
problem with most teachers how to suppress it. 

A word or two of communication that arises from 
mere forgetfulness should not be looked upon as a se- 
rious evil ; but wilful whispering is a demoralizing factor 
in a school and should be suppressed at once. Some 
teachers have found that calling for a report at the close 



148 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

of the session from those who have broken the rule has 
the effect of diminishing the annoyance. It is wise to 
meet the matter squarely. Show the pupils that dis- 
order of any kind hinders the progress of the school; 
that whispering is a disorder, and that whispering in 
the presence of others is a rudeness that would not be 
tolerated in their homes, and that good manners are 
as essential in the schoolroom as elsewhere. Much of 
the necessity for communication can be avoided by al- 
lowing a moment or two at the opening of the session 
for each one to obtain any article that has been for- 
gotten. Do not be continually talking upon this sub- 
ject to the school. Disorder of any kind is usually 
attributable to but few. Treat these privately. The 
effect on them and on your school will be better for 
such a course. 

Tardiness. Much confusion and annoyance re- 
sult from the late entrance of a few pupils at the 
morning or afternoon opening. From the numerous 
plans for securing prompt attendance given below, 
the teacher may find something that will suit his case. 

(a) In the first place, the teacher should never be 
late himself. He should be present some time before 
the opening, and give to each one coming in a pleasant 
greeting. 

(b) In cold weather be sure that the room is warm 
enough, at least fifteen minutes before the opening. 
Don't compel the pupils to be late in order to find a 
warm room. 

(c) For five or ten minutes after roll-call some 
teachers have an object lesson in science, bringing in 
objects upon which to talk to the scholars, as leaves 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 149 

or grasses, rocks, mosses, etc. If this is made attrac- 
tive, the pupils will try not to miss it. 

(d) Tickets may be given small pupils for each day's 
punctual attendance a certain number of these tick- 
ets entitling the possessor to an earlier dismissal on 
Friday afternoon. 

(e) Pupils may be kept after school the same length 
of time they lost at the opening of the session. 

Have the last bell rung five minutes before the open- 
ing of school, that sufficient warning may be given. 

Some teachers have a portion of space reserved on a 
blackboard near the entrance door on which is writ- 
ten the word "Tardiness." Pupils coming in late 
are required to write their names beneath this word, 
together with the time of entrance, as 9:10, 9:15, etc., 
and make up the time at the close of the session. 
They erase their names before leaving. 

Other teachers require pupils entering late to write 
their names on a card or slip of paper, with the time 
of entrance, and leave it at the desk. Eeport of these 
cards is made to the parents at the end of the month. 

Another plan is to grant a holiday to the whole 
school on the first Monday of each month, provided 
there has been no instance of tardiness during the pre- 
ceding month. Under such circumstances each pupil 
is unwilling to be the one to deprive all the others of 
a holiday. 

Pupils who are thoroughly interested in school-work 
will seldom be late, but there are always some who 
appear five or ten minutes after the opening of the 
session. A special effort must be made to bring these 
in on time ; for the interruption of late entrances de- 
moralizes the school at the start. It may be that 



150 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

pupils come late to avoid the dulness of the opening 
exercises. A long roll-call, and the reading of Scripture 
not readily understood by youthful minds, may be of 
this nature. Make the morning exercises so bright 
and cheerful that to miss them will be felt a loss. Let 
the Scripture reading be short but appropriate; and 
let it be preceded and followed by music, if possible. 
Do away with the roll-call, and mark absences in your 
register while the pupils are studying. 

Some teachers have a " Tardy Friday." On that 
day all who have not been tardy during the term up 
to that time are dismissed an hour earlier than the 
others. All who have been tardy are required to re- 
main. 

Another device for securing punctuality is to spend 
the first fifteen minutes at the opening of the session 
in talking about something that is transpiring in the 
world at the time. The teacher asks a question in re- 
gard to some notable public event ; if no one can an- 
swer it, the question is repeated the next morning, and 
a lively curiosity is excited. The pupils ask parents 
and friends, who in turn become interested, and the 
question is discussed in the family circle. Soon the 
answers begin to come in ; clippings from papers and 
books are brought and the question is discussed. In 
this way, the first few moments are made so interest- 
ing that no one wishes to lose them. Teachers may 
find it advantageous to make personal visits to the 
parents in regard to the matter. If the co-operation 
of the parents can be secured, there will be very little 
tardiness. 

Yet another way to secure punctuality is to read for 
a few moments each morning a few pages in a con- 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 151 

tinued story. By the last-named device, two things 
will be gained, attendance may be secured, and a 
taste for good reading cultivated in the pupil. 

After all, the most efficient plan to prevent or di- 
minish tardiness is to arouse the pride of the scholars 
in making the school successful, and this will prove a 
great factor for good in many other directions. In 
graded schools competition can be aroused between 
different rooms, each trying to have the best record 
in punctuality and attendance. 

Rest Periods. When your pupils appear tired 
and dull, throw open the windows and have a breath- 
ing exercise. Good work cannot be done in a school- 
room where the air is impure from insufficient venti- 
lation. Teachers are inclined to overlook the physical 
welfare of their pupils. They should never forget that 
to have a sound mind, one must have a sound body in 
which it may dwell. The seeds of disease are far too 
often implanted in the bodies of delicate pupils by the 
over-heated and impure air of the schoolroom. In 
these exercises great care should be taken never to in- 
hale or exhale suddenly. Nor should the pupils prac- 
tise holding the breath for any considerable length of 
time. 

1. Place the hands on the hips ; draw a long breath ; 
expel the air slowly. Eepeat twice. 2. Draw in a 
long breath. Send the hands straight up in the air; 
bring them back to the shoulders. Expel slowly. Ee- 
peat twice. 3. Draw a long breath. Draw the body 
backward from the waist ; bring it back again. Ex- 
pel slowly. Kepeat twice. 4. Draw a long breath. 
Bend the body forward from the waist ; return to an 



152 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

erect position and expel the breath slowly. Repeat 
twice. 5. Draw a long breath ; bend the body to the 
right ; return to an erect position. Expel the breath 
slowly. Repeat twice. 6. The same, bending the body 
to the left. 7. Draw in a long breath ; stretch out the 
arms horizontally ; return to the shoulders. Expel 
slowly. Repeat twice. 

Let these exercises occur at the middle of a session, 
or whenever there seems to be a need of them. Do 
not let them degenerate into disorder ; if any persist 
in making play of it, let them take their fresh air out- 
side the schoolroom. 

Ventilation. Have a board fitted to slide between 
vertical cleats fastened to the window-casings, a few 
inches from the sash. This device gives an upward 
inflection to the cold air as it enters, causing it to be- 
come gradually diffused throughout the room, with- 
out being felt as a draught by the pupils. If ventilation 
must be sought by opening the windows, do not open 
those on the windward side, as this would cause a 
draught directly upon the pupils, and would not prove 
as beneficial in freeing the room of impure air as 
though the opposite windows were opened, when the 
air in the room would gently pass out to join the cur- 
rent outside. If possible, the air should be admitted 
to the schoolroom near the floor and allowed to pass 
out at the ceiling, but the air admitted should be warm, 
or rendered warm before it is breathed. To do this in 
many buildings containing but one room, is a simple 
matter. Let the air be admitted through an opening 
directly beneath the stove. This may be brought 
about by having a wooden flue leading from an open- 



SCHOOLEOOM SUGGESTIONS. 158 

ing in the foundation wall to the opening beneath the 
stove, which may be closed at either end by a sliding- 
door, when the draught is too strong. The air as it 
enters will thus be warmed. Openings should also be 
made in the ceiling to allow the impure air to pass 
out. 

Many teachers have narrow strips of boards made 
the same length as the width of the window. These 
are placed under the lower sash, when an air-passage 
is formed between the upper and lower sash, and in 
such a way as to avoid a direct draught. 

As a last suggestion, remember that the lassitude 
and lack of interest so often noticed in schoolrooms is 
due, in a great measure, to the impure state of the air. 
The present success of a school and the future health 
of pupils depend in no small degree upon the kind of 
air they breathe in the schoolroom. 

Lighting. The light in a schoolroom should al- 
ways enter the room at the sides or in the rear : pupils 
should not sit facing a window. If there is such an 
abomination in your room, place a dark curtain over 
it. When it is necessary to use gas or lamps, the same 
care should be used. Never allow the light to shine 
directly in the faces of the pupils. The walls of a 
schoolroom should not be so white as to reflect a daz- 
zling light into the eyes. If this is the case, they may 
be cheaply tinted drab or fawn color. 

School Gymnastics. A few moments spent each 
day in brisk and orderly gymnastic work will be found 
to pay, both in driving away weariness and dulness, 
and also in the development of the growing bodies of 



154 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

the pupils. It is particularly important that these ex- 
ercises be conducted according to some definite plan 
which experience has found best for accomplishing the 
purposes desired. Much more precision and interest 
will be attained if music can be provided to accompany 
the exercise. If a piano or organ is not practicable, 
a drum beaten in time will be found a good substitute. 
Many of the scholars, through a feeling of awkward- 
ness, will ask to be excused. This trouble may be 
obviated by commencing with exercises for the hands 
and arms, which can be practised while sitting. After 
a little, all will be ready for the standing exercises. 
If dumb-bells cannot be obtained, small bits of wood, 
four inches long and an inch in diameter, should be 
grasped tightly in the hands. If possible use dumb- 
bells, as even their slight weight requires a certain 
bracing of the body which calls into action nearly all 
the muscles. Do not allow any exercises except such 
as are known to be beneficial, for ill-advised action 
of the muscles or overtaxing does more harm than 
good. 

The following exercises will be found practical and 
easy of accomplishment : 

For the Hands, Wrists, and Arms. I. Open and 
shut the hands vigorously ten times; then a pause, 
marked by the music, foUowed by the same exercise 
twice repeated. 

2. Place the hands palms downward on the desk, 
raise them from the wrist only, ten times; pause, 
marked as before, and two repetitions. 

3. Elbows resting on the desk, hands turned on the 
sides. Raise the hands as high as possible ten times; 
pause, and repeat twice. 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 155 

4. Arms held out straight before the body, bring the 
hands to the shoulders ten times ; pause, and repeat. 

For the Chest and Back. 1. Let the hands meet 
over the head, both palms forward; bring them down 
in the. same plane to the side of the body, holding the 
shoulders rigidly back; repeat ten times, 

2. Raise the arms up over the head, bend the body 
till the hands nearly touch the feet, bring the body 
to an erect position again with the arms raised as be- 
fore, and repeat five times ; pause, and repeat once. 

3. Grasping the dumb-bells, or sticks, raise the hands 
as far as possible above the head, and return to the 
shoulders ten times; keeping the head thrown back, 
so that the eyes are gazing directly at the ceiling. 

For the Lower Limbs. 1. Standing erect with the 
hands upon the hips, raise the whole body on tip-toe 
ten times ; pause, and repeat once. 

2. Standing erect with the hands upon the hips, 
lower the body by bending the knees and then imme- 
diately rise to an erect position again ; repeat five times, 
pause, and repeat once. 

3. Standing erect with the hands upon the hips, bend 
the body sidewise to the right in the form of a bow, 
then to the left in the same manner ; repeat ten times, 
pause, and repeat twice. 

The teacher should use his own judgment as to the 
amount of these exercises which will be profitable for his 
pupils to take. If the pupils are very young, or not 
accustomed to exercising, a few motions of each kind 
only should be taken at first, gradually increasing the 
amount. It is much better to take a, few of each than 
to spend the whole time on one or two motions, as it 
is important that all the muscles of the body be brought 



156 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

into action, to produce a harmonious development. 
Plenty of fresh air should be allowed in the room dur- 
ing this exercise. Have the room cool and the chil- 
dren will not become heated and made liable to receive 
a cold. Insist strongly that all stand erect an4 keep 
the shoulders back, that the lungs may have a chance 
to expand. 

Information. Once a week the teacher may take 
a half -hour to question the school upon points of gen- 
eral information. When the questions can be answered 
by any one of the pupils, let the answers be obtained 
in this way; when all are in ignorance of the answer, 
the teacher should give the information, enlarging on 
topics of the most concern. In this way the pupils 
will be interested and will also secure much valuable 
knowledge. Questions will readily occur to the teacher 
a few only being given below: 

1. What is the source of alcohol? How does it de- 
range the action of the bodily functions? (Teacher 
should enlarge upon the destructive effect upon the 
brain, stomach, heart, kidneys, and the will-power of 
the user.) 

2. Does the U. S. receive any income from the Ter- 
ritory of Alaska, and what is the form of government 
there? 

3. What State, or Territory, produces the greatest 
amount of gold next to California? What other States 
produce gold? How is gold mined? 

4. To what extent has the central portion of Africa 
been explored, and by whom? 

5. What is the difference between our own form of 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 157 

government and that of other countries, as England, 
Germany, etc.? 

6. How old must a man be before he can be a Sena- 
tor, a Representative, or President of the United States? 

To Give an Idea How to Compare. To culti- 
vate the habit of close observation, let the teacher take 
two pieces of money (a penny and a dime will answer), 
and, holding them up before the class, ask the pupils to 
tell wherein they are alike. They will say that they 
are both round, metals, engraved, coins, etc. Write all 
these answers on one part of the board. Then ask the 
pupils to mention the points wherein they differ. 
They will say that they differ in size, thickness, color, 
in the characters engraved on them; that they are 
made of different metals; that their edges differ, etc. 
Write these answers upon another part of the board. 
Then ask for a word that will express the points in 
which they are similar. They will soon hit upon the 
word "Likenesses," and upon "Differences" for the 
points in which the coins are dissimilar. 

Such a device may be used with great profit in be- 
ginning Botany, and in any other study where com- 
parison is a basis of procedure. 

Read ch. iv., part i., sec. vi., Tate's "Philosophy of 
Education." 

Difference between Horses and Cattle An 
Observation Lesson. After an idea of comparison 
has been given, as suggested in the paragraph above, 
direct pupils to observe the differences between horses 
and cattle and to make a record of the differences they 
note. 



158 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 



When pupils think they have observed all the differ- 
ences, let the teacher suggest what further to observe, 
and when this has been done, the teacher will have to 
state some differences that pupils are not trained ob- 
servers enough to notice, and can only verify after a 
long interval. 

We give herewith a list of differences, putting those 
most difficult to determine at the foot of the list. 

Cattle, or Bovine Animals. Horse, or Equine Animals. 



Usually have horns. 

Without mane. 

Have two toes. 

Long hair in a tuft at the 

end of tail. 
Have no upper incisor 

teeth. 

Lie down fore parts first. 
Rise on hind legs first. 
Encircle food with the 

tongue and convey to 

mouth. 

Always chew the cud. 
Defence by hooking. 
Bellow or moo. 
No warts inside of hind 

legs. 

Never use teeth in fighting. 
Do not retract the ears. 

Very rough tongue. 

Wide ears. 

Do not roll over. 



Never have horns. 
Have a flowing mane. 
Have one toe. 
Tail covered with long 

coarse hair. 
Have upper and lower 

front teeth. 

Lie down hind parts first. 
Rise on fore legs first. 
Seize grass with their lips 

and convey to their teeth 

in feeding. 

Do not chew the cud. 
Defence by kicking. 
Neigh or whinny. 
Hard oval warts inside of 

hind legs. 

Use their teeth in fighting. 
Retract the ears when 

angry. 

Soft smooth tongue. 
Erect narrow ears. 
Lie down and roll over. 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 



159 



Shorter mouth. No vacant 

space between incisor 

and molar teeth. 
Broad triangular head. 
Sleep with both ears alike. 
Eat awhile and lie down to 

ruminate. 

Seldom sleep standing. 
Have dewlap. 
Can breathe through the 

mouth. 



Mouth long. Space be- 
tween front and back 
teeth. 

Long narrow head. 

Sleep with one ear forward. 

Eat all or nearly all the 
time in pasture. 

Often sleep standing. 

No dewlap. 

Never breathe through the 
mouth. 



Mouth usually open when Never open the mouth 



wearied. 



Shoulders forward. 



from exhaustion, 
only to eat or bite. 
Shoulders slope back. 



but 



Pawing with fore feet de- Pawing with fore feet usu- 

notes anger. ally denotes hunger. 

Do not perspire easily, if Perspire easily. 

ever. 

Limbs formed for strength. Limbs formed for swift- 
ness. 
Live thirty to forty years. 



Live twelve to eighteen 

years. 

Have four stomachs. 
Can vomit. 
Intestines small 120 feet 

long. 

Have gall bladder. 
Lips slightly movable. 



Have one stomach. 
Cannot vomit. 
Intestines large 60 

long. 

Have no gall bladder. 
Lips very movable. 



feet 



A Query Box, It is an excellent plan to have in 
each schoolroom "a query -box," into which a pupil 
may drop one question each day one which he cannot 
answer himself, after careful study. Never allow him 



160 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

to resort to the box until he has consulted all the refer- 
ence books within his reach. 

This box should be a covered one, with a narrow 
opening in one side. If desired, it may be locked, and 
the key put in the teacher's hand. The questions or 
" queries" should all be written in a neat, plain hand, 
on narrow slips of white paper, care being taken to 
spell every word correctly. 

A few moments each day, before the close of school, 
may be devoted to the " query -box," the teacher read- 
ing the questions aloud and inviting any pupil who can 
do so, to answer them. In this way the work becomes 
general and interesting, and an honest pride and 
rivalry is encouraged. In due time the pupils become 
eager to possess themselves of bits of valuable general 
information, and notice such in their reading much 
more quickly than formerly. 

The teacher should require the school to answer all 
the questions possible, even leaving them over until 
the next day or later, and setting the boys and girls at 
work hunting for the answers. 

Once or twice a week or oftener, as the teacher 
may please the unanswered slips should be collected, 
and the teacher himself furnish the answers to them, 
adding items of information upon each subject repre- 
sented. 

When Visitors Come. Welcome those who 
come to visit your school with courtesy and cordiality. 
If a recitation is in progress, furnish your callers, 
when they are seated, with books, and state clearly 
what you are doing ; then continue your lesson in the 
usual manner. Above all things do not stop your 
work to talk to them, as nothing will upset your 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 



161 



school quicker, unless yours is a school which sees 
a great many visitors each week. 

Do not make a single apology, and do not, as teach- 
ers so often do, say to pupils, u Now, John, think 
what you are saying. You know it if you will only 
think. Don't he so embarrassed that you can't think," 
etc. When the teacher talks in such a strain, she has 
lost her own self-possession, and that, too, at the very 
time when she most needed it, and when its exercise 
would have the strongest and best influence upon the 
school. 

Do not struggle for order by tapping on your desk, 
or reprimanding pupils for whispering, or looking 
keenly and imperiously at this one or that one. Should 
there be a little more noise than usual, or should some 
pupil take advantage at the time, do not notice it, nor 
call attention to it. Your visitor, who is not nervous, 
will undoubtedly not notice it, and you can deal with 
the offender at another time. 

Remember that your pupils will do as you do. If 
you are anything but your natural self, they will not 
do you credit. 

The Three Kingdoms. Having explained to the 
pupils what is meant by the kingdoms, animal, vege- 
table, and mineral, draw four lines on the blackboard, 
and mark the columns thus: 



Animal. 


Vegetable. 


Mineral. 









162 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

The pupils copy this on their slates. Let the teacher 
then write a list of names, such as linen, copper, car- 
pet, paper, oil, ivory, silk, glass, paint, having the 
pupils write each word in the column indicating the 
kingdom to which it belongs. If any article or sub- 
stance named belongs to more than one kingdom, place 
its name in two or three columns accordingly. If the 
pupils do not know where to place any one of the 
names, they should be led to see where to place it, by 
questioning them as to where the article is found, or 
of what made. Let the teacher pass around among 
the pupils while they are writing, and point out cor- 
rections to be made. 

A School Log-book. The teacher may add in- 
terest to the school for a time and give different pupils 
some real work in composition by securing a suitable 
blank book and asking the school to select each week 
a secretary to keep in this book the diary of events for 
that week. Let each day's events be noted carefully. 
Enough ludicrous incidents occur in any school to 
render the diary spicy. Elect secretary by ballot, ac- 
cording to regular usage. 

Dull Recitations. It is the most difficult thing in 
the world for the average teacher to see when his class 
is tired, and when he has tired it. Time and time 
again such a thing happens, but still he goes on still 
he continues to tire his class. Yet all the while he is 
conscious there is a drag. But the drag occurs day 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 163 

after day. u How should he avoid it," does one ask? 
Stop, the moment the recitation begins to drag. If 
the time allotted is thirty -five minutes and the lesson 
begins to drag after twenty-five, stop at once, and 
dismiss the class. What would be the result? In the 
first place, the teacher would gain in power and fresh- 
ness for his class, and upon himself the result would 
be that he would make a preparation which would last 
through the time and sustain the interest of his class. 

Alternating Studies. Do not attempt to hear 
daily recitations in everything, if your school is a large 
one, but alternate the studies of the more advanced 
pupils. 

Quiet Periods. In some schools this plan would 
have a good effect. The teacher finding there is noise 
and restlessness, stops work, and says, u Now let us 
take ten minutes of hard study. We must have the 
room perfectly quiet. Let me see how many can keep 
steadily and quietly studying for the ten minutes." If 
the effect is not dissipated by the teacher, the influence 
of such a period will be felt in the quiet on-going of 
school. 



Division of Class. It is sometimes convenient to 
divide a class into two, three, four, or more sections. 
There are several ways in which to accomplish this 
quickly and impartially. 

1. Let the class number as they are seated ; a division 
may then be made of odd and even numbers. 

2. Call off promiscuous numbers and keep account 
of them on paper. 



164 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

The device of assigning a number to each pupil may 
be made to furnish a separate example for each mem- 
ber of the class. Suppose, for instance, the class is 
working in notation and numeration, the teacher may 
say, "Put down your own number, prefix to it two 
ciphers and a six, and annex a nine, two ciphers, and 
your own number; point off and be ready to read." 
No. 18 would then read 6,001,890,018. No 11 would 
have an entirely different number 6,001,190,011 and 
likewise the rest. 

The same device can be used in fractions, compound 
numbers, percentage, etc. 

Plan for Getting Answers from each Pupil 
of a Large Class. Where classes are large, and it 
is desired that all take part in the recitation, adopt the 
following plan: Give out a certain number of ques- 
tions, and ask all the members of the class to write 
them on slates or paper. Let each one then write the 
answers below the several questions. Call upon some 
one to read the first question and its answer. If cor- 
rect, ask all who have a similar answer to raise hands. 
If incorrect, call for correction. Go through the whole 
list of questions in this way. 

4 

A School Diary. The teacher, having procured a 
suitable blank-book, may allow the school to vote for 
a secretary each week, who will write up each day 
the events of that day. To give the secretary some 
importance, a small badge may be provided. 

Time Given for Questioning. Have a certain 
time in your recitation work when the pupils can ask 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 165 

questions on the day's lesson, or on any of the work 
gone over, which may still be troubling them. 

Original Examples and Illustrations. Let 
pupils bring in original examples in each subject as they 
pass along. These may be distributed among the 
members of the class for solution, to be reported on 
the following day. 

Repetition. A great part of the benefit of some 
teachers' work is lost through lack of repetition. This 
occurs most often in teaching small children. Ideas 
can only be firmly implanted in their minds by con- 
tinual repetition. The same is true, though perhaps 
to a less extent, with the majority of older pupils. To 

secure the best results, review ; and after this 

review. 

Necessity of Reviews. In order to fix the facts 
acquired firmly in the mind, frequent reviews are in- 
valuable. Sometimes a written reproduction of past 
work should be demanded, and sometimes an oral re- 
production. The teacher may make a brief restate- 
ment of the chief points in the work after the scholars 
have finished. It is also important that each recitation 
should begin with a short review of the one preceding 
it. It will occasionally be found well to divide the 
class into two parts, and allow a pupil on one side to 
question any one upon the other side, but on the condi- 
tion that the one putting the question shall be fully 
able to answer the question himself. It is also of value 
to set apart a time when each one may ask any ques- 



166 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

tion that has puzzled him in his work; but indiscrim- 
inate questionings should not be allowed. 

In reviews, write your questions on blank cards, and 
let the student write his answers on the board, and 
encourage the class to criticise what is wrong. When 
there is a large amount of instruction, both oral and 
written reviews are a necessity. Pupils should rise 
and read their written reproductions, or recite the 
same orally ; they should follow an orderly plan and a 
logical outline. In order that they may do this, the 
teacher must first have done it. The pupil takes his 
cue from his instructor, hence the teacher's lesson 
should be carefully wrought out. Read sec. xv., ch. 
iv., Tate's " Philosophy of Education." 

G rap h i c Exam i n ati o n s. In holding an examina- 
tion of this sort, ask only such questions as can be 
answered by figures on the board. For instance, in 
physiology, a great number of questions on the struc- 
ture of the heart can be answered by a drawing of that 
organ upon the board. Questions in geography can 
be answered by maps, drawn on the boards, showing 
cities, mountains, rivers, capes, etc. In almost all 
studies, questions can be asked, admitting graphic 
answers upon the board. Such an examination is sure 
to be a thorough test of familiarity with the subject. 

The Value of an Object. Many teachers will 
keep referring to the size of a brick, and yet never 
think to bring one into the schoolroom. Fetch one 
to school with you, and direct pupils to measure it. 
A bird in the hand will teach a child more about or- 
nithology than a dozen in the bush. 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 167 

Error-box. Have a box at the desk, and ask the 
pupils to write out, and place in this all the errors they 
have noticed in the language which has been used in 
school during the day. Let each paper be signed by 
the one writing it. The box may be opened each night 
before school is dismissed, or at the beginning of school 
the next day, and the papers read by the teacher, who 
should ask for hands to be raised for corrections. 

Quotations. To develop a taste for literature, take 
a few moments after the morning exercises, in which 
the pupils may repeat quotations from various authors. 

Questioning. It is of great importance in asking 
questions of pupils that a logical order be followed. 
Each question ought to prepare the way for that which 
follows, and lead to it. Many teachers make a failure 
because their questions are so worded that the pupil 
does not see what is meant by them. Others fall into 
the error of suggesting too much in asking a question. 
How much benefit can come from such an interroga- 
tion as this, " You would regard this as an important 
battle, would you not?" When pupils have become 
accustomed to the tone and manner of their teacher, 
unless he is on his guard, they will infer what the 
answer is from his very tone of voice. 

To show what is meant by a logical order in ques- 
tioning, we subjoin a few questions for giving a class 
an idea of a clause. 

Practical men are usually diligent. 

What kind of men are diligent? 

What word modifies the subject? 



168 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

In what other form can this sentence be placed with- 
out changing the sense? 

Men who are practical are usually diligent. 

What kind of men are diligent? 

What word does who are practical modify? 

To what word in the first form is who are practical 
equivalent. 

What kind of a modifier is it ? 

In the clause who are practical, what is the subject? 
To whom does who refer ? To what class of pronouns 
does who belong? What kind of a clause is this? 
What is its predicate? To whom does practical refer? 
What word in the clause does practical modify? 

Bead ch. vi., Fitch's " Lectures on Teaching." 

Pupils to Keep a Note-book. Advise pupils in 
the higher classes to keep a note-book and write in it 
lists of words, commonly misspelled or mispronounced, 
correctly spelled and pronounced, together with the 
new words they meet in their reading, with their cor- 
rect spelling and meaning. The book will thus become 
a record of the pupil's progress. 

Bulletin-board. Have a bulletin-board in the 
schoolroom or in the hall of the building, on which 
may be posted notices. Newspaper clippings of 
stories, news, or humorous anecdotes may be pasted on 
the board, which will prove a source of interest, quiet 
amusement, and profit to the pupils. A brief sum- 
mary of each day's news could be thus posted and the 
pupils questioned upon this. 

Reporting Exercise. A profitable exercise may 
be made by asking the pupils to make notes of any- 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 169 

thing of interest which falls under their observation and 
tell it, in their own words, to the class. Make it a vol- 
untary exercise, and allow it to occupy but a few 
moments. Encourage the pupils to carry note-books 
in which they may make notes of things suitable to 
report. In this way the habit of observation will be 
cultivated. 

A Test of Quick Observation. Try the plan of 
placing an object before the class, and, after it has been 
in view for a moment, remove it from sight, and call 
for an accurate description of it. Begin with simple 
objects and gradually substitute those which are more 
difficult. 

Debating Club. Where the boys of a school are 
of sufficient age, it will be a great advantage to them 
to have a debating society, conducted according to 
the usual parliamentary rules governing such bodies. 
It is a great loss to boys to pass from school to the 
duties of life, and not be able, for example, to make, 
or put, a motion properly. Besides familiarity in the 
manner of conducting such meetings, the boys would 
be learning something useful, and acquiring the habit 
of independent thought the great object of teaching. 
The teacher should help organize the club, and should 
preside at the first few meetings, till the members be- 
come accustomed to the rules of procedure. Then 
they should elect one of their own number to preside. 
A few topics suitable for discussion by young people 
are given below : 

Resolved, That the right to vote should be extended 
to woman. 



170 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Resolved, That government aid to education defeats 
the end sought. 

Resolved, That the right to vote should be denied 
those who cannot read and write. 

Schoolroom Decoration. It is not possible for 
teachers, ordinarily, to go to any great length in the 
matter of schoolroom decoration, but every one can 
make an effort in that direction, and the effort will be 
amply repaid. Every evidence of refinement and taste 
which can be shown in the room will have a refining 
influence on the manners of the pupils. If the room 
is bare, cheerless, and dirty, as too many are, the effect 
is plainly seen, and an opposite effect is likewise plain- 
ly seen if the room is clean, bright, and tastefully ar- 
ranged with pictures, flowers, and a few bright colors 
scattered about. Good pictures can be procured so 
cheaply now that there is but little excuse for bare 
walls. A few cents invested in dye would transform 
the cheerless white curtains into warm, bright colors. 
A little effort would transform the dirty and rusty 
stove into a respectable article of furniture. Teach 
your pupils to manifest the same neatness in the 
schoolroom that they would in their own homes. If 
you can interest the pupils in making the room pleas- 
ant and keeping it clean and orderly, you will have 
gained a great advantage both in the matter of disci- 
pline, and in the development of a regard for beauty 
on the part of the scholars. 

During a large part of the year plants can be kept 
in the room and nothing makes it more homelike 
or pleasant. Have shelves arranged at some of the 
sunny windows, and ask each pupil to bring a plant. 



SCHOOLROOM SVG&ESTIONS. 171 

Quick-growing vines can be trained about the window 
casings, and for this purpose perhaps nothing is better 
than the sweet-potato vine. It is only necessary to 
place a small potato of this variety in a vessel of 
water when it will begin to grow, and under ordinary 
circumstances, will increase an inch a day. A great 
number of these can be arranged about the various 
windows. Let the children take turns in caring for 
the plants. 

In all your efforts to beautify the room, avoid every- 
thing which is out of taste. Cheap colored prints 
should be shunned. Buy engravings or photographs 
of pictures that will elevate the taste of the pupils. 

Some teachers who are not able to secure even a 
small amount of funds to expend in decoration, cut 
the large effective wood-engravings from Harper's 
Weekly, and other illustrated papers, and paste these 
engravings upon pasteboard box-covers, which are 
thrown aside at every store. Tasteful selection and 
arrangement of such pictures give the room an air of 
refinement, and exert an educative influence upon the 
school. 

Suggestions about Receptions. At school re- 
ceptions it is usually found necessary to have a stage, 
and this must be of good size, especially if dialogues 
are to be given. Neither teacher nor school officials 
should sit upon the stage. Such an exhibition is out 
of taste. Give special visitors a seat near the stage, 
but reserve the platform for those who are to take 
part. The order of proceeding should not be called 
off by the teacher. Have printed programmes, if pos- 
sible, and let each performer go out in his turn without 



172 SQHOOL DEVICES. 

waiting to be called. In building a platform care 
should be taken to have it of sufficient height that 
those in the rear of the room may have an unob- 
structed view. When dialogues or plays are to be 
given, a curtain will be found necessary. Have a 
stout cord stretched tightly across the front of the 
stage, and from this let the curtain be hung by small 
rings. It should be divided in the middle one half 
sliding each way, and let small cords pass from the 
last ring in each curtain, at the centre of the stage, 
to each side of the platform, so that the curtain may 
be drawn together or apart from the sides of the 



Closing Exercises. It is always well to make 
the closing of a term or year a special occasion, in 
which the friends of the school may become acquainted 
with the work done, and an interest created outside 
the pupils and their parents. This closing exercise 
will consist partly of a review or examination on the 
work done ; and, in addition, to give a pleasing variety, 
some literary work should be presented by the pupils. 
This need not be of the same character for all, but 
may vary according to the age and ability of the stu- 
dent. The most advanced may present something 
original, either as a discussion of some subject one 
speaking in favor and one against it or as a composi- 
tion or essay on some timely topic. Good dialogues 
will always be well received, as will also tableaux. If 
possible, have music several times during the exercises. 
This will be of interest to visitors, even if it is not 
elaborate. Use the songs that have been sung in 
school, during the term. 



SCHOOLROOM SUGGESTIONS. 173 

One of the pupils may prepare and read a History of 
the term, giving a brief account of all that has oc- 
curred, together with the work accomplished. It is well 
to have printed programmes, if that is convenient; 
if not, they may be neatly written by the scholars. 
See that visitors are made welcome and courteously 
shown to seats. 

Let all such exhibitions be rehearsed again and 
again. It is only in this way that a successful enter- 
tainment can be secured. The audience is likely to 
judge your work by the showing which your pupils 
make on such occasions. If any one is likely to fail, 
it is far better to withdraw him till another time, 
when his part can be more thoroughly committed. 



174 SCHOOL DEVICES. 



CHAPTER VHI. 

OUTSIDE THE SCHOOLROOM. 

The Parents of Pupils. The reputation of a 
school depends, to a great extent, upon the way in 
which the parents regard it, and their opinion is usu- 
ally formed l>y the reports which the children carry 
home. It is therefore important that nothing he said 
or done by the teacher which may be misconstrued by 
the pupils. If it be possible, and it ought to be possi- 
ble, let each pupil feel that you are truly interested in 
him. In no other way can you gain such a hold on 
the pupil, or better arouse the parent's interest in the 
school. When you meet a parent, if you can honestly 
do so, do not fail to speak pleasantly of the child. In 
this way you will gain the good- will of the parent, and 
arouse the self-respect and ambition of the pupil, since 
he will regard himself as an object of interest to his 
teacher. Do not fail to invite the parents to visit the 
school, and when they come make them feel at home, 
but do not make any change in your usual exercises. 
Your school is very sure to be successful if you can 
arouse the parents' interest in your work. 



OUTSIDE TEE SCHOOLROOM. 175 

The Noon Recess. In country schools, where 
the children live at a distance from the school, it is 
necessary for them to carry a lunch and remain dur- 
ing the noon hour. In this hour much that is ill-bred, 
and much that is frequently of a vicious nature, may 
be learned by them, unless great care be taken to have 
the hour filled with orderly, harmless amusement. If 
the teacher also remain during the hour, there is an 
opportunity to set an example of good-breeding in the 
manner of eating lunch, and in other ways. Encourage 
the use of napkins, and a neat appearance and orderly 
manners. After lunch, music, stories, or interesting 
games are in order. If the teacher can engage heartily 
in these, he will gain a firm hold upon the sympathies 
of his pupils, and will find his discipline easier in school 
hours. It may be objected that the necessary work of 
the school is sufficient tax upon a teacher's strength. 
But will the teacher not come to the afternoon session 
in better trim, having occupied the hour thus, than 
would be possible after enduring the confusion and 
annoyance of the usual noon intermission? One rule 
should be rigidly regarded ; if any pupil is discovered 
using improper language about the schoolroom, he 
should be removed from school at once. The school- 
room must be pure and fresh, morally, this is of far 
more importance than arithmetic or grammar. 



Teach the Constellations. The teacher would 
add to the interest of his school, and increase the 
knowledge of his pupils, if on clear evenings he should 
take them out and teach them the different constella- 
tions, telling them at the same time the legends con- 
nected with each. During the day he could announce 



176 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

the constellation that would be seen that evening, and 
place dots on the board to represent the position of 
each star in that constellation. Dots may be made large 
to represent the bright stars, and the names of these 
written out. In this connection, be careful that the 
names are correctly spelled, and all the words properly 
pronounced. A mispronunciation taught at this period 
will, perhaps, be carried through life. A lasting benefit 
may be secured by such teaching. Some of these boys 
may become sailors to whom this knowledge will be 
most necessary. The work of others may compel 
them to be out of doors at night on the road, or in 
the fields, when familiarity with the heavens will be 
an enduring source of pleasure. Another point to be 
noticed is the elevation of character that comes when 
the thoughts are turned up from the dead level of com- 
mon things to that which is mysterious and grand. 
The attempt to grasp the immensity of stellar distances 
can but broaden the mind by the very act. 

Begin in the latter part of October to teach the con- 
stellations. Dot upon the board an outline of the 
Pleiades, and tell in what part of the sky they will be 
visible at a certain hour. Call attention to the bright- 
est star in the constellation, Alcyone. It will be found 
that many a scholar has singled out this little cluster 
long before hearing of constellations, and has called it, 
improperly, of course, the Little Dipper. Having the 
Pleiades as a basis, it will be found quite easy to go 
from this to other groups. Right below the Pleiades, 
and covering five or six times as much space, will be 
found, in the shape of a letter V turned on its side, 
the Hyades, with its bright star Aldebaran. Moving 
north from each of these constellations, we find Auriga, 



OUTSIDE THE SCHOOLROOM. 177 

its bright star Capella. In the west-northwest may 
be found Lyra, with its bright star Vega, an easy con- 
stellation to outline and to find. Eeturning to the 
eastern sky, under the Hyades, is to be seen that large 
and beautiful constellation Orion, scattering a star- 
twilight all about it. Under Auriga in the latter part 
of November, at nine o'clock, will be found the con- 
stellation of the Twins, Castor and Pollux forming its 
bright stars. 

In January, the Dipper and its pointers can be 
searched out, and at the same time Polaris, or the pole- 
star. Cassiopeia is on the opposite side of the pole 
from the Great Bear, at nearly the same distance. This 
constellation can be readily recognized from its three 
or four bright stars, disposed in a line broken into 
pieces at right angles to each other. 

The teacher should consult a star-map, which can be 
found in any text-book upon Astronomy. If he know 
nothing of that subject, he can easily gain the little 
information necessary to direct his pupils in their 
search for the constellations. We are urging that only 
the marked constellations be taught, and we complete 
this topic by naming the rest of these : The Great Dog, 
the Little Dog, Leo, Virgo, Bootes (the Bear-driver), 
Hercules, Job's Coffin. 

The Judgment of Two is Better than the 
Judgment of One. Whenever a teacher has an 
unusual case of discipline, it is best to consult the 
trustees or the parents before taking action. 

Another Suggestion for the Noon Intermis- 
sion. If the teacher own a microscope, much enter- 



178 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 



taininent can be given pupils on days when the weather 
is unfit for them to be out of doors. Various small 
objects viewed under the microscope will afford much 
pleasure and matter for conversation. If the teacher 
have not mounted slides, he can find enough all about 
him to exhibit. Parts of insects placed on the slide, 
grains of pollen dust from different flowers, etc. We 
add one suggestion not generally known. Cut off a 
piece of the Deutzia leaf, and also a piece of the calyx 
of the flower, and place them under the microscope. 
Beautiful stars of different shapes will be seen six- 
pointed on the calyx and four-pointed on the leaf. 
There are two varieties of the Deutzia, the dwarf and 
the high, each variety possessing stars of different 
shape. 

A Scrap-box. A convenient receptacle for the 
preservation of newspaper clippings can be made in 




the following way: Take old envelopes of a uniform 
size 3J x 5J inches will be found convenient square 



OUTSIDE THE SCHOOLROOM. 179 

the torn end, and provide a long and narrow box (an 
envelope box will do, if it is not convenient to have one 
made like the diagram), into which these envelopes will 
fit side by side. Cut from pasteboard a number of 
pieces the same size as the envelopes, with which to 
separate them into alphabetical divisions. Into these 
envelopes, in their own properly lettered divisions, can 
be placed folded cuttings which it is desired to pre- 
serve. If, for instance, Elaine's " Eulogy on Garfield " 
has been taken from the columns of a newspaper, 
it will be placed in an envelope in division "E," and 
across the upper end of the envelope should be written 
" Elaine's Eulogy on Garfield." The advantage of 
such an arrangement, in the saving of time, is a sugges- 
tion that needs no further word of recommendation. 

Scrap-book. Another way to preserve clippings, 
which may be preferred by some to the scrap-file, is 
the scrap-book, which may be made an especially 
valuable book for teachers, and at almost no cost. 
Take any large-sized volume such as the Congressional 
Kecord, and cut out every other leaf, so that when 
the cuttings are pasted in, the book may be of the 
original thickness. In this may be placed poetry, 
stories, bits of travel, natural history the habits of 
animals, birds, and fishes. Pieces suitable for decla- 
mation and reading can also be placed here. Every 
teacher can readily see the value of such a collection. 
Articles relating to matters of history and biography 
in fact, everything that will be available in the teacher's 
work can be preserved in this way. 



180 SCHOOL DEVICES. 



CHAPTER IX. 

HISTORY. 
Outline of United States History. 

[As USED IN THE SCHOOL OP CAMBRIDGE, MASS.] 

I. AMERICA BEFORE COLUMBUS. 
Its Inhabitants. Its Antiquities. 

II. THE PRINCIPAL DISCOVERERS AND EXPLORERS OF 
AMERICA. 



2 i^^h' ] Name and describe briefly their most 

3 French | i m P r tant discoveries and explor- 
4. Dutch/ J ations. 

HI. THE PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS IN AMERICA. 

1. St. Augustine. 9. Connecticut. 

2. Port Royal, N. S. 10. Rhode Islancl. 

3. Virginia. 11. Delaware. 

4. Quebec. 12. North Carolina. 

5. New York. 13. New Jersey 

6. Massachusetts. 14. South Carolina. 

7. New Hampshire. 9 15. Pennsylvania. 

8. Maryland. 16. Georgia. 



HISTORY. 181 



State when, and by whom they were settled, and the 
object of settlement. 



State where carried 
on. 



IV. THE COLONIAL WARS. 

1. Wars with the Indians. 

2. Clayborne's Rebellion. 

3. Bacon's Rebellion. 

4. King William's War. 

5. Queen Anne's War. 

6. King George's War. 

C Time, Cause, 

7. French and Indian Wars. < The Objective Points, 

( Treaty of Peace. 

8. The American Revolution. 

(1) f Navigation Act. 

n,i J Writs of Assistance. ( Stamp Act. 

Uiuses. * Unj - ust Taxation ] Bill of 1767. 

t Boston Massacre. ( Tea Tax. 

[" Sons of Liberty. 
Colonial Convention. 

(2) Defensive Measures. ] Minute Men. 

First and Second Conti- 
[ nental Congress. 

(3) Leading Events. 

( Skirmishes at Lexington and Concord. 
1775. ] Battle of Bunker Hill. 
( Siege of Boston. 

f Evacuation of Boston. 
1 77ft J Declaration of Independence. 
j Campaign in New York. 
[ Trenton. 

(Princeton. 
Campaign in Pennsylvania. 
Burgoyne's Invasion^, 
Valley Forge. 

">" OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 



182 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

C Aid from France. 
1778. < Evacuation of Philadelphia. 

( The British capture Savannah. 

j Naval Exploits. 

I Attack on Savannah. 

C The British Capture Charleston. 

1780. < Arnold's Treason. 

( Gates and Camden. 

C Green's Campaign in the Carolinas. 

1781. < Ravages in Virginia. 
( Siege of Yorktown. 

i Treaty of Peace. 

( Departure of the British. 

(4) Depreciation of the Currency. 
V. THE GOVERNMENT. 



be " 



1. Of the Colonies. Eo PS 

(Proprietary. |tween them. 

o r\f 4-1^ TTU^/I Q^-O 3 i Tne Confederation. 

2. Of the United States, j The Constitution. 

VI. THE UNITED STATES UNDER THE CONSTITUTION. 
1. George Washington's Administration. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

f Financial Affairs. 
Relations with Foreign Pow- 
ers. 

(2) Leading Events, j SeTsta^^ * ** 

First Cabinet. 
Discovery of coal. 
. Gotten gin* invented. 



HISTORY. 



183 



2. John Adams's Administration. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

( 2 ) Leading 



3. Thomas Jefferson's Administration. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

C Purchase of Louisiana. 

(2) Leading Events. < Fulton's Steamboat. 

( Aggression of Great Britain. 

4. James Madison's Administration. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

[1. Cause. 
2. Where carried on. 

(2) Lead- War of 1812. 3. Important events by 
ing Events. | land and sea. 

[4. Treaty of peace. 
, War with Algiers. 

5. James Monroe's Administration. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

' Construction of the Erie Canal. 
First Steamboat Crosses the Atlantic. 

(2) Lead- 1 Acquisition of Florida. 
ing Events. 1 Missouri Compromise. 

Monroe Doctrine. 

Mode of John Quincy Adams's Election. 

6. John Quincy Adamses Administration. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

C Death of John Adams and 

(2) Leading Events. < Thomas Jefferson. 

( First Railroad Built. 

7. Andrew Jacksorts Administration. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

(2) Leading Event. Nullification. 



184 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

8. Martin Van Burerts Administration. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

(2) Leading Events. None of special importance. 

9-10. Administrations of William Henry Harrison 
and John Tyler. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Terms. 

f Death of Harrison. 
I Rise of Mormonism. 

(2) Leading Events, \ Annexation of Texas. 

Beginning of Electric Teleg- 
[ raphy. 

11. James K. Polkas Administration. 
(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

fl. Cause. 
' War with] 2. Important Events. 



(2) Lead- 
ing 

Events. 



V ar Wlin J Taylor's Campaign; Operations in 
Mexico. New Mexico and California; 



Scott's Campaign 



2ampaig 

_ 3. Treaty of J?eace. 
Discovery of Gold in California. 
Wilmot Proviso. 



12-13. Administration of Zachary Taylor and Millard 
Filmore. 
(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Terms. 

(2\ T PadiriP- ( Death of Taylor. 
( *v^ ? 1 Discussion of the Slavery Question. 
lts ' ( Compromise of 1850. 

14. Franklin Piercers Administration. 
(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

JGadsden's Purchase. 
Opening of Japan. 
R-flnqflq Nph^qkn ( Border Warfare. 
Bill j Squatter Sovereign- 



BISTORT. 



185 



15. James Buchanan's Administration. 
(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 
r Dred Scott Decision. 
The First Atlantic Cable Laid. 



(2) Leading 
Events. 



Personal Liberty Laws. 
John Brown's Eaid. 



Election of Lincoln. 

Seven Southern States Secede. 

A Southern Confederacy Organized. 

16. Abraham Lincoln's Administration. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

(2) Leading Events. 
A. The Kebellion. 

a. Cause. Slavery. 

b. Principal Events. 

(a) Fall of Sumter. 

(b) First Blood Shed. 

(c) Operations for the Retention of the South- 

ern States. 
(Of Missouri. 
Of West Virginia. 
( Bragg's Expedition. 
Of Kentucky. < luka and Corinth. 
( Murfreesboro'. 

(d) Campaigns against Eichmond and its De- 

fending Army, 
f Bull Run. 

Peninsular Campaign. 
Pope's Campaign. 
Antietam Campaign. 
Fredericksburg Campaign. 
Chancellorsville Campaign. 
Gettysburg Campaign. 
Wilderness Campaign. 
Shenandoah Campaign. 
Siege of Petersburg. 
Fall of Richmond and Surrender of Lee. 



186 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

(e) Rise of the Navy, and its Share in the War. 

f Blockade of Southern Ports. 

' Opening of the Mississippi River. 

1 Capture of Coast Cities and Forts. 

[ Encounters with the Rebel Navy. 
(/) Opening of the Mississippi River. 

^ The Part Performed by the Navy. 

( The Part Performed by the Army. 
(g) Movements for the Mastery in the Heart 
of the Confederacy. 

( Chickamauga. 
Chattanooga. 

\ Sherman's Campaign from Chattanooga 
to Savannah and Northward. 

[ Thomas's Nashville Campaign. 

c. Emancipation Proclamation. 

d. Effect on the Finances. 

e. Cost in Men and Money. 

/. Our Relations with Foreign Powers. 
B. Assassination of the President. 

17. Andrew Johnson's Administration. 
(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 
Disbanding of the Army. 
Thirteenth Amendment. 
Fourteenth Amendment. 



(2) Leading 
Events. 



Admission of Seceded States. 
Impeachment of the President. 
The Atlantic Cable. 
Purchase of Alaska. 



18. Ulysses S. Grant's Administration. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

C Pacific Railroad Opened. 

(2) Leading Events. < Fifteenth Amendment. 

( Treaty of Washington. 



HISTORY. 187 

19. Rutherford B. Hayes* s Administration. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Term. 

(2) Leading Events. None of special importance. 

20-21. Administration of James A. Garfield and Ches- 
ter A. Arthur. 

(1) When Inaugurated. Length of Terms. 

(2) Leading Event. Assassination of the President. 

VII. CIVIL PROGRESS. 

1. Prominent Statesmen. 

2. Eminent Authors and their Principal Works. 

3. Progress of Education. 

4. Noted Inventions. 

The Value of Geography in Teaching His- 
tory. A noted teacher and writer has said that " his- 
tory without geography is incomplete and unsatisfac- 
tory." Let the teacher keep this constantly in mind; 
for nothing so effectually aids a scholar to hold tena- 
ciously the account of a battle or a campaign, as 
tracing it out carefully upon the map when studying. 
Suppose a pupil, in his study of the American Eevolu- 
tion, is required to trace the movements of the army 
under Washington from his taking command at Boston 
to the surrender of the British at Yorktown, naming 
the battles and encampments, together with the im- 
portant dates ; it will be found that the pupil's reali- 
zation of that portion of the Revolution with which the 
movements of this army are connected, is then much 
more vivid than is possible without this connected use 
of the map. 

A plan of a battle-ground drawn upon the board, and 



188 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

the movements of the opposing troops dotted in lines 
as the pupil recounts the events, is another form of 
using geography in teaching history. 

Trace General Grant from his being placed in com- 
mand, before the battle at Belmont, through all his 
movements till Lee surrenders to him near Eichmond. 

Trace Sherman in his march to the Sea, and then 
northward to co-operate with Grant, pointing out the 
place of each engagement and giving a very brief ac- 
count of it. Such topics as the above cover more than 
one year; but such a plan used in the study of history 
will give a clear, connected, and durable impression 
of the main movements of the war. 

Plan of Recitation for History Class. Have 
the class read the lesson assigned for the following 
day, first as a reading exercise. On the next day di- 
rect the class to bring their slates with them to recita- 
tion. Have them write their names at the top, and 
then let the teacher give out a number of questions 
orally, requiring the class to write the answers upon 
their slates. The questions given by the teacher 
should not be those of the text-book, as the pupil would 
soon recognize this and learn the answers to them. 
Exchange slates as soon as all pupils have written 
their answers. Then, giving out the first question, call 
upon some pupil to read the answer upon the slate 
which he has, and by a raising of hands ascertain 
how many have answered the question correctly. An- 
swers will diifer in wording and in length ; but if the 
general facts are correct, give the pupil full credit for 
his answer. 



HISTORY. 189 

First Things in the United States. First in- 
habitants known the Mound Builders. 

First Europeans to visit America the Northmen, 
according to tradition, explored New England during 
the llth, 12th, and 13th centuries. Little that is defi- 
nite is known. 

First voyage to the New World that of Columhus, 
starting August 3, 1492, and touching at San Salvador, 
West Indies. 

First landing on the mainland John Cahot, of 
uncertain nativity, first known as a Venetian, after- 
ward sailing under a charter obtained from Henry 
VII., in 1497, sailing along the coast 1000 miles south- 
ward from Labrador. 

First settlement September, 1564, Saint Augustine, 
Florida, by a Spaniard,. Melendez, who was sent over 
to drive back the Huguenot refugees. 

First charter granting land that to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, under title of "Virginia," in honor of the 
virgin queen, in 1584. 

First English settlement Jamestown, Virginia, 
under a charter granted to the London Company, of 
" noblemen, gentlemen, and merchants," in 1607. 

First slaves twenty offered for sale by a Dutch 
vessel, 1620, at Jamestown, Virginia. 

First ship built in New England the "Blessing of 
the Bay." July 4th, 1631. 

First college Harvard, projected in 1636, and actu- 
ally begun in 1638, at Cambridgeport, Massachusetts, 
and named in honor of John Harvard, a minister of 
Charlestown, who gave it an endowment of 400. 

First union of the colonies for their mutual benefit 
the Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New 



190 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Haven colonies banded together in 1643. Matters of 
joint interest submitted to two commissioners from 
each colony. 

First witchcraft troubles those at Salem, 1698. 

First Presbyterian Church at Snow Hill, Maryland, 
1690; first presbytery, that of Philadelphia, 1705; first 
synod, of four presbyteries, 1716. 

First newspaper Pennsylvania Gazette, or what 
afterwards became that paper, 1704. 

First general religious revival that preached by 
Jonathan Edwards throughout the New England 
colonies. His most famous sermon was " Sinners in 
the Hands of an Angry God." 

First Continental Congress that at Philadelphia in 
1774. 

First formal organization of the Methodist Church, 
1784; first of the Episcopal Church, 1785; first of the 
Catholic Church, 1786. 

First State to ratify the Constitution Delaware, 
1787. 

First State admitted to the Union Vermont, 1791. 

First steamboat Kobert Fulton's Clermont, on the 
Hudson, 1807; rate of speed, five miles per hour. 

First national bank that at Philadelphia, with 
branches, 1816-17; capital, 35,000,000 dollars. 

First canal Erie, opened 1825. 

First railroad Quincy, Mass., to tide-water mark, 
three miles ; drawn by horses ; 1827. 

First financial crisis that brought about by bank 
money, and real-estate speculation, 1837. 

First formal proposition to dissolve the Union the 
resolution of Mr. Bhett, of South Carolina, in Con- 
gress, in 1839. 



HISTORY. 191 

First telegraph between Baltimore and Washing- 
ton, single wire, 1844; Prof. S. B. Morse. First dis- 
patch news of Mr. Folk's election to the Presidency. 

The "Yes" and "No" Game in History. 
This game is valuable as an occasional variation of 
the usual work. The old routine grows tedious, and 
it is a good idea to bring this little history pastime into 
the class, when the teacher sees listless, indifferent 
faces before him. Let him, or some one of the class, 
select in his mind an important historical event, per- 
son, time, or place, and the rest of the class ask ques- 
tions to discover it. No question unanswerable by yes 
or no should be allowed. 

This play-work develops a power and ease of ques- 
tioning, and shows also a prompt knowledge of the 
subject. It is an excellent review exercise, and so 
pleasant " such fun" that the pupils altogether forget 
that it is work. 

Use of Poems embodying Historical Facts. 

The many noted poems or works in prose founded 
on historical facts may be made a pleasant as well as 
an important aid in history lessons. 

For example: " Evangeliiie," based on the expulsion 
of the French from Acadia; "The Last of the Mohi- 
cans," introducing scenes of the French and Indian 
War; " Ichabod, " suggested to Whittier when Web- 
ster indorsed the Fugitive Slave Law; "The Biglow 
Papers," ridiculing the Mexican War; "The Star- 
Spangled Banner," written by F. S. Key, during the 
bombardment of Fort McHenry ; ' ' Paul Revere's Ride, " 
"The Landing of the Pilgrim's," "Sheridan's Ride," 
"Barbara Frietchie," "All Quiet along the Potomac 
To-night," etc. 



192 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Outside of the history of our own country are Tenny- 
son's " Charge of the Light Brigade," Byron's " Water- 
loo," Scott's works, and Shakespeare's historical plays. 

The list, of course, can be greatly extended. Its use 
will afford a grateful variation when recitations in 
history hecome monotonous. 

Supplementary Work in History. From the 
index of any history make a list of about one hundred 
names, comprising the most noted discoverers, ex- 
plorers, generals, presidents, statesmen, inventors, 
authors, and orators. 

Arrange the list alphabetically, numbering each 
name. 

Select for the class three or four names, and require 
them to find out, within a given time, all they can 
about each name. Who was he ? About what time 
did he live ? If a general, tell in what war he fought, 
and on what side ? If an inventor, what did he in- 
vent ? If a discoverer, what did he discover ? etc. 

When the allotted time is passed, instead of the 
regular history lesson, allow the pupils to recite all the 
information they have gained. Then require them to 
condense the same into two or three sentences, pre- 
serving, of course, the main facts. 

Have blank-books in which the pupils may write the 
name and condensed answer after it for future refer- 
ence. 

At first, pupils will find it difficult to condense their 
answers, and the teacher should aid them by placing 
upon the blackboard for their inspection several ex- 
amples. 



HISTORY. 



193 



No. 

47 
49 

50 
51 

53 

54 
55 



NAME. 



THOMAS JEFFERSON. 
JOHN PAUL JONES. . 

LAFAYETTE. . . . 
ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 

MAGELLAN. . . . 
MASSASOIT. . . . 

GEN. MCCLELLAN. . 
PlZARRO. 



STATEMENT. 



The third President of the United 
States. 

A famous naval officer in the Revolu- 
tionary War. He was in the service 
of the Americans, although born in 
Scotland. 

A French nobleman who fought with 
the Americans in the Revolution. 

He was twice elected President of the 
United States, and issued an order 
during the Civil War freeing the 
slaves. He was shot while serving 
his second term. 

A Portuguese navigator who discovered 
the Strait of Magellan ; he died on 
this voyage, and his sailors made the 
first voyage around the earth. 

An Indian chief who made a treaty of 
peace with the Pilgrim Fathers. 

A Union officer in the Civil War. 

A Spanish soldier who conquered Peru. 



Teaching History. 

I. Plan of Teaching History. 

1. In one lesson give a general sketch of the whole 
history to be taught, and divide it into its great de- 
velopment periods, fixing the date of the commence- 
ment of each period. 

2. Teach the history of each period, beginning with 
the first. 

3. Teach independently the events connected with 
each topic. 

4. Sketch the history connected with each topic suc- 
cessively through all the periods, after having taught 
each period independently. 



194 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

5. Show the advantages of this plan (a) in giving 
connected ideas regarding the progress made in each 
department of national life; (b) in facilitating the re- 
membrance of historical facts in their relation to their 
effects ; and (c) in affording natural and incidental re- 
views of the history already taught. 

II. Training Pupils to Study History. 

1. This is the most important of the teacher's duties 
in dealing with this subject. History should be learned 
chiefly after school life has ended. 

2. Assigning lessons wisely is the means for training 
to study. 

3. Do not assign answers (notes) to be committed to 
memory. 

4. Assign questions, and let pupils prepare answers 
by reading their histories. 

5. All questions should not relate merely to isolated 
facts or dates. 

6. They should compel a comparison of facts, and 
exercise the pupil's judgment. 

7. A good outline or plan of the lesson is better than 
questions for advanced classes. 

III. General Suggestions. 

1. Chronology is not history. 

2. Epoch men and women should receive a large 
share of attention. 

3. Striking scenes and great events should be vividly 
pictured to awaken interest. 

4. Pupils should write historical abstracts and bio- 
graphical sketches for compositions. 



HISTORY. 195 

Studying History by Preparing Written Pa- 
pers. In no way can the study of history be made to 
yield so excellent and wide results as by assigning 
topics to a class, requiring them to read up thoroughly, 
and write a careful and condensed paper upon the 
topic. By this plan the pupil is not getting his knowl- 
edge ready-made, but is making it for himself. He 
consults maps, books of reference, different text-books 
for the facts, and then must dwell upon them and 
have them clearly in mind before he is able to write a 
clear account. Frequently he will have to draw a map 
on his paper for illustration. 

Edward Abbott's little ''Paragraph History of the 
U. S." would form a good outline in American history 
for the teacher to work upon. 

One caution should be added to this plan, and that is, 
the necessity of thorough oral reviews. 

Dates. In teaching history, use but few dates, but 
let these few be focal dates. Train pupils to locate an 
occurrence between these by calculation. If careful 
consideration is given, they will come approximately 
near the exact time. Some dates can be impressed 
easily upon the mind by some peculiarity in them. 
Take, for instance, 1789, the year the present constitu- 
tion of the United States was adopted. By asking 
pupils to notice what is peculiar about the last three 
figures of this date, they will see the regular order of 
the numerals 7, 8, 9, and by this association hold it in 
memory. 

Nearly every boy has read these lines in Dr. 
Holmes's " One-hoss Shay:" 



196 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

" Seventeen hundred and fifty-five 
Georgius Secundus was then alive 
Snuffy old drone from the German hive. 
That was the year when Lisbon town 
Saw the earth open and gulp her down; 
And Braddock's army was done so brown, 
And left without a scalp to its crown." 

In these lines are three important facts, two being 
upon American history, viz. : that it was in 1755 that 
Braddock's army was defeated (the first year of the 
French and Indian war), and that George the Second 
was then king of England. 

Washington died in December, 1799. This may be 
of but little value as a date, but whatever its value a 
statement such as this would fasten it in the mind: 
Washington died on the last hour of the day, the last 
day of the week, the last month of the year, and the 
last year of the century. 

Rome was founded 753 B.C. By remembering the 
reverse order of the odd numbers, 7, 5, 3, this date 
may be fixed in the mind. 

In speaking of the Norman Conquest, the impression 
made by saying " The Normans landed in 1066 "ten 
and two sixes is more forceful than to state merely 
the naked date. 

The dates of the following events may be remem- 
bered by contrast: The Puritans landed in 1620; sla- 
very was introduced into Virginia in 1619. 

It must be remembered, however, that a device of 
this kind has its limitations and is likely to be carried 
too far. 



HISTORY. 197 

Administrations of the Presidents. Many 
examiners require the dates of the beginning and close 
of each President's administration. To acquire this 
easily, let scholars be able to name the Presidents in 
order and tell how many terms each served. Then 
taking the date 1789 (on which we have made a for- 
mer suggestion) and adding four or eight years, as the 
case may be, the whole matter becomes much easier. 

Drawing in History. Fresh interest can always 
be given to the study of history by introducing draw- 
ing. No matter how good the engraving in the book, 
a picture of the Monitor and the Merrimac drawn by 
a pupil on the board upon a large scale invests the 
story of that naval battle with an additional interest. 

We suggest a few of the many things that may be 
represented upon the board by those pupils who can 
draw: The flags used by the Americans in the Ee vo- 
lution; the Confederate flag; Continental money; Ful- 
ton's first steamboat; the firing upon the Star of the 
West as she attempted to carry reinforcements and 
supplies to Major Anderson at Fort Sumter. 

Civil Government. Such an exercise as the fol- 
lowing may be given to the whole school, since it con- 
tains information that every well-informed person 
should possess. The officers and legislative bodies of 
the U. S. government, of the State, county, town, and 
school district, exercising similar powers, are placed 
side by side : 



198 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 



U.S. 


State. 


County. 


Town. 


Sch. Dist. 


Congress. 
President. 
Sec. State. 

Sec.Treas. 
Auditors. 


Legislature. 
Governor. 
Sec. State. 

Treasurer. 
ComptrolTr. 


Board of Superv's. 
Sheriff. 
Co. Clerk. 

Co. Treas. 
B'd Supervisors. 


Town Meeting. 
Constable. 
Town Clerk. 

Supervisor. 
Auditors. 


Dist. Meeting. 
Trust, or Agt. 
Dist. Clerk. 

Collector. 
Trustee. 



English Sovereigns. Those who wish to fix in 
memory the succession of the sovereigns of England 
can easily do so by committing the following lines, 
which, though old, are useful: 

" First William the Norman, 

Then William his son; 
Henry, Stephen, and Henry, 

Then Kichard and John. 
Next Henry the Third, 

Edwards one, two, and three; 
And again, after Kichard, 

Three Henrys we see. 
Two Edwards, third Richard, 

If rightly I guess; 
Two Henrys, sixth Edward, 

Queen Mary, Queen Bess. 
Then Jamie, the Scotsman, 

Then Charles whom they slew, 
Yet received after Cromwell 

Another Charles too. 
Next James the Second 

Ascended the throne; 
Then good William and Mary 

Together came on. 
Till Anne, Georges four, 

And fourth William all past, 
God sent us Victoria 

May she long be the last 1" 



BISTORT. 



199 



Topical Outline for Teaching Civil Govern- 
ment, by Geo. H. Martin, Agent of the Massachusetts 
State Board of Education. 

' a. What officers chosen. 

6. By whom chosen. 

c. When and how chosen. 
. d. For what chosen. 

Same topics. 
Same topics. 

a. Public convenience and 

welfare. 

b. Public will. 

c. Nature of office-holding. 

d. Duties of ) To vote. 

citizens f To pay taxes, 

e. Public property. 
a. Necessity for laws. 
6. Natural rights. 

c. Objects of laws. 

d. Duties of citizens to re- 

spect and obey. 

e. Nature of representation. 

a. Penalties. 

b. Justice, free, speedy, im- 

partial. 

c. Local administration. 

d. Presumption of innocence. 

e. Duties of witnesses and 

court officers. 
Execution, prompt, vigor- 
ous, impartial. 

a. Dangers to liberty. 

b. Safeguards of liberty. 



1. Of local govern- 

ment, 

2. Of State gov- 

ernment, 

3. Of National 

government, 



1. Of local govern- 
ment, 



2. Of State gov- 
ernment, 

Legislative De- 
partment, 



Judicial Depart- 
ment, 



Executive Depart- 
ment, 

The Constitution, 



C 1. Immediate American history. 
III. CAUSES. < 2. Mediate English history. 

( 3. Eemote Comparative history. 



200 SCHOOL DEVICES. 



CHAPTER X. 

PHYSIOLOGY. 

Practical Physiology. There is no study which 
can be made of such practical value to a class as 
physiology; and to teach it, omitting the practical 
side, is to fail in the moral responsibility which one 
assumes in teaching such a subject. If you do not 
know the proper thing to do in restoring a person 
who has been under water several moments, find 
out, and see that your class understand what is neces- 
sary to be done in such a case. If you do not know 
what to do when an artery or large vein is severed, 
get some intelligent physician to inform you, and 
then make it clear to the class. 

The study should include sufficient anatomy to 
make clear the position of the large blood-vessels and 
the place where the arteries come to the surface. A 
teacher of physiology ought to be familiar with the 
relative digestibility of all the common foods, and 
make his pupils see how health is lost by non-attention 
to this subject, and by irregular and rapid eating. 
Do not treat the subject of ventilation as something 
foreign to e very-day life; make your pupils enthusi- 
astic over fresh air. Bring sharply home to each pupil 
the ways in which health is lost, as also the ways by 
which it can be made vigorous. Teaching that shows 



PHYSIOLOGY. 201 

the structure of the stomach and lungs, and. the way 
in which they act, is of but small value if it does not 
show how to take care of these organs. 

Read chapter "The True Foundation of Science- 
Teaching" in Payne's " Lectures on Education." 

Development Lesson in Physiology. The 
following is a report of a lesson actually given to a 
grade of pupils, 12 or 13 years of age. It will be no- 
ticed that the teacher carefully observed two things: 
going from the seen to the unseen, and from the sim- 
ple to the difficult. His foremost aim in the entire 
work was to make the child reverence his body. 

The order in which the whole subject of Physiology 
was taken up by the grade is, in the main, as follows: 

SKIN. Qualities, structure, use, care. 
MUSCLES. Qualities, structure, use, care. 

BONES. 1. Qualities. Hard, smooth, light, porous 
at ends, knobs at ends, ridges and depressions on the 
surface. 

2. Structure. (From sawed bone), hand, porous, 
fine tubes, canal, marrow. 

3. Composition. Bone in dilute acid, bone burned. 

4. Skeleton. Framework and support of the body. 

c Skull, 

5. Parts. < Trunk, 

( Extremities. 

6. Joints. Arms, legs. 

{Ligament sprain. 
Cartilage use. 
Synovia use. 



202 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

{Movable. 
Hinge. 
Ball and socket. 
Immovable. 

8. Care of Bones. Growth and repair. 
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. 
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. 
NERVOUS SYSTEM. 

The lesson began with a review of the work of the 
day before. 

REVIEW. 

Teacher. What did we find on the outside of our 
bodies ? 

Pupil. We found skin on the outside of our bodies. 
T. What is the main use of the skin ? 
P. To protect the parts underneath it. 
T. What is just underneath the skin ? 
P. The muscle or lean meat is underneath the skin. 
T. What is the use of the muscle ? 
P. The muscle moves the parts of the body. 

ADVANCE WORK. 

T. What is under the muscle ? 

P. There is bone under the muscle. 

T. How do you know ? 

The pupils gave various answers. One said: " I can 
feel the bone in my fingers and at my elbows." An 
other, "We can see the bone inside the flesh in beef 
and pork;" another, " I saw a man who had his finger 
cut off, and I could see the bone inside the flesh." 

At this point the teacher showed specimen (a dog's 
leg that had been preserved in alcohol) , and located 



PHYSIOLOGY. 203 

the skin, muscle, and bone. Then he passed specimens 
of bones to each pupil. 
T. What have I given you ? 
P. A bone. 

T. Tell me all you can about the bone. 
P. This bone is white or pink, and smooth. 
T. Make a dent in the bone with your finger. 
P. I cannot. 
T. Why not? 
P. Because it is hard. 

T. Hold the bone on the end of one finger, and tell 
me about its weight. 
P. It is light. 

T. Examine the end of your bone. 
P. It is full of very little holes. 
T. What word describes a thing which is full of 
such little holes? 
P. Porous. 

T. Shut your eyes and pass your fingers over the 
whole bone. What did you notice ? 
P. I noticed a knob on the end of my bone. 
P. I found a ridge on the side of my bone. 
T. Tell me all you have learned about your bone. 
P. It is white, smooth, hard, light, porous at the 
end, and it has ridges and knobs at the end. 

T. Draw on the blackboard one line to represent 
this face of your bone; this edge; this edge; and this 
edge. 

The pupils passed to the blackboard, and drew quick- 
ly and well what they were directed to draw. 

T. What kind of faces and edges must your bone 
have since you draw curved lines to represent them? 
P. Curved faces and edges. 



204 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

T. Why do these bones have curved faces and edges? 

Pupil does not know. 

T. What is the shape of the top of the doorway 
downstairs? 

P. It is curved. 

T. Why was it built with a curve instead of with 
straight lines? 

P. It was built so because it looks better. 

T. Yes ; it is more beautiful. Why are all the arches 
in the railroad bridge made with curved instead of 
straight lines? 

P. Because they look better. Another pupil: Be- 
cause they are stronger. 

(Teacher illustrated to class by drawing.) 

T. Why do we make curved faces? 

P. For beauty and strength. 

T. Bones are curved for the same reason (presenting 
a large bone sawed longitudinally). Tell me all you 
can about the substance of which this bone is formed. 

P. It is white, hard, and porous, and there is a greasy 
substance in the middle. 

T. This greasy substance is called marrow (writing 
the word upon the blackboard) ; see if you can tell me 
why this greasy substance is placed inside of bones, 
for our next lesson. 

T. (Presenting two bones.) Describe this. 

P. This bone is very limber and tough. 

T. Now describe this. 

P. This bone is very brittle, and it is stiff. 

T. The first bone has been in acid, and the mineral 
substance has been taken out of it. What is left is 
called the animal substance, or animal part of the 
bone. What does the animal substance give bones? 



PHYSIOLOGY. 205 

P. The animal substance gives toughness and lim- 
berness to bones. 

T. This other bone has been burned, and the animal 
substance has been destroyed; this part is called the 
mineral substance of bones. What does the mineral 
substance give to bones? 

P. The mineral substance gives hardness and brittle- 
ness to bones. Another pupil added : Stiffness. 

T. (Presenting skeleton.) What have I? 

P. A skeleton or bones. 

T. From what animal do you think these bones were 
taken? 

P. From a man. 

T. Of what use were these bones to the man? 

Pupil does not know. 

T. Suppose the bone$ could be taken out of your 
body without hurting you, how would it affect you? 

P. I could not stand up. 

T. Then of what use are the bones of your body to 
you? 

P. The bones hold my body up. 
. T. Who can tell it another way ? 

P. The bones support my body. 

T. What do you call the part of a building which 
supports or holds up the rest? 

P. The framework. 

T. What may we call the bones? 

P. The framework of the body. 

Summary. 

T. Tell me the qualities of bone. 

P. Bone is white, hard, porous, light. 

T. Describe the inside of the bone you saw. 



206 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

P. It was hard, white, and full of a greasy substance. 

T. Of how many substances is bone composed? 

P. Bone is composed of two substances animal and 
mineral. 

T. What does each give to bone? 

P. The animal substance gives toughness and lim- 
berness to bone. The mineral substance gives hard- 
ness and stiffness to bone. 

T. What is the use of the bones in the body? 

P. Bones support the body; bones are the frame- 
work of the body. 

This lesson was followed by lessons on the backbone, 
chest, skull, and then came lessons on the growth and 
care of the bones. 

How to Prepare a Drop of Blood for Obser- 
vation under the Microscope. A specimen of 
blood can be prepared for the microscope by using a 
slide and cover glass (a thin round glass). Take the 
latter in the fingers and breathe quickly on one side of 
it, which will thus become slightly moist. Place the 
cover glass upon the slide, the moist side downward. 
Put a fresh drop of blood on the slide at the edge of the 
cover glass, and a bit of blotting-paper at the other 
side of the same. The moisture on the underside of 
the glass will be drawn out into the blotting-paper, and 
the blood will be forced in to take its place without in- 
jury to the blood-corpuscles. The specimen is then 
ready for use. 

An Outline of Foods, Place the following out- 
line upon the board, GO be used as the basis for lessons 
on foods : 



PHYSIOLOGY. 



207 



(Albumen, 
Casein, 
Gluten, 
Fibrin, etc. 

AT . f Fats, 
Not - ' 

containing \ 
S 



Organic. 



Foods. 



fLime; 

\ Salts, chlorides, phos- 
Inorganic. -j phates, etc. ; 

Iron, 
[Water. 



To Show the Process of Osmosis in Liquids. 
Over one end of a glass tube tie securely a piece of 
parchment paper, and put in the tube a thick solution 
of sugar and water. Insert the tube in a dish of clear 
water, so that the surface of the sugar solution and 
that of the clear water shall be on a level. After 
standing awhile, it will be found that the liquid in the 
tube has risen above the level of the surrounding water, 
showing that some of the water has passed through 
the paper into the denser liquid. 

To Show Osmosis in Gases. Over the top of 
a glass containing nothing but air tie securely a thin 
rubber membrane. Place this under a bell glass con- 
taining hydrogen. The hydrogen will pass through 
the rubber into the denser medium, and increase the 
bulk of air to such an extent as to burst the rubber. 



To Illustrate Reflex Action. Pith a frog in the 
following way : After etherizing, to obviate unnecessary 



208 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

pain to the animal, find with the finger a depression 
in the spinal column just below the base of the brain. 
Insert the point of a knife here, and sever the spinal 
cord. Through the opening thus made run a small 
awl or wire up into the brain, and destroy that organ 
by twisting the awl or wire about within the brain 
cavity. Although the brain is thus destroyed, the 
other functions of the body still continue. Lay the 
f i-og on the ventral surface and straighten out the legs. 
Let one side of the animal be tickled with a feather or 
pinched with a pair of pincers. The leg on that side 
will be drawn up and swept over the side to remove 
the cause of the irritation. Try the same on the other 
side. The other leg will go through the same motions. 
Pinch various parts of the body, and observe the efforts 
of the frog to remove the irritating object. Suspend 
the frog and pull down the legs. Bring a dish con- 
taining dilute sulphuric acid up under the frog, so that 
one of the legs will just touch it. The foot will sud- 
denly be withdrawn. Touch the acid to the other leg. 
That will likewise be withdrawn. Moisten a bit of 
blotting-paper with acetic acid, and place it on the 
flank of the frog. The leg on that side will be drawn 
up, and swept over the flank to dislodge the paper. 

To Illustrate Congestion. Having placed a frog 
that has been pithed so that the web of the foot can 
be seen under the microscope, apply to the spot to be 
observed a drop of creosote. Observe the action of 
the blood. It will be seen to become stagnated, and 
blocked up in its flow, while the white corpuscles will 
become more numerous. Here, then, can be seen, on a 
small scale, the whole process of congestion. If the 



PHYSIOLOGY. 209 

irritation from the creosote be but slight, the blood will 
finally force its way through the blood-vessels, and the 
circulation be resumed. 

To Show the Motion of the Cilia. Lay open 
the oesophagus of a frog that has been recently pithed, 
and on the inner surface lay a small bit of cork. It 
will be seen to move slowly down toward the stomach, 
carried along by the cilia. 

To Show the Circulation.- The circulation can 
be observed in the tongue of the frog, as in the web of 
the foot and in the lungs of the same animal. 

The circulation of the blood can likewise be seen in 
the tail of the tadpole. If a specimen can be obtained 
at just the right age, nearly the whole circulatory 
system of the animal can be watched through its trans- 
parent skin. The heart, with the blood entering and 
leaving it, can be seen, as also its passage through the 
arteries. For the success of the observation, it is well 
to starve the young tadpole for a day or two previous 
to examining it. As the animal grows older, its skin 
loses its quality of transparency. The tadpole may be 
rendered passive by placing it in water and heating to 
about 113 degrees. 

Action of the Heart. A good experiment to offer 
to the class in physiology is to open the thoracic cavity 
of a frog, previously rendered insensible, when will be 
seen the action of the heart and the lungs collapsed. 
If the heart be carefully removed and placed on a 
board in a warm place, it will beat for some time. 



210 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Structure of the Lungs. To show the structure 
of the lungs, insert a small tube in the trachea of a 
dead frog and inflate the lungs. Tie up the trachea to 
prevent the escape of the air, and hang in a warm 
place to dry. On cutting it open, after being thor- 
oughly dried, the air-cells can be studied to good 
advantage. 

Carbonic Acid. The show the presence of car- 
bonic acid in expired air, take a small glass tube or 
the stem of a clay pipe, and through it breathe slowly 
into a glass of lime-water. A white precipitate will 
be formed, which is carbonate of lime, formed by the 
carbon of the gas and the lime in the water. 

Structure of the Heart. The heart's action can 
be studied to advantage by the use of the frog, as 
shown in another place. But to show the structure of 
this organ, the heart of a larger animal is necessary. 
Get a butcher to save you one from a sheep, and while 
it is still fresh cut it open and exhibit it to the class. 
The working of the valves can be readily shown, and, 
in genera], the students will get a much better idea of 
the subject from such an inspection than from a mul- 
.titude of diagrams. Have the students draw carefully 
upon paper what they see. 

To Diagram the Blind Spot in the Eye. 
Draw several horizontal, parallel lines about a quarter 
of an inch apart. Make a cross at one end of the line. 
Close the left eye, and look steadily at the cross with 
the right eye. Now run the point of the pencil along 



PHYSIOLOGY. 211 

the upper line. At a certain distance along the line, 
the point will become invisible, and a little further on 
will again appear. Make a dot at the points of disap- 
pearance and reappearance. Do this on a number of 
the lines. It will be found that the dots have enclosed 
a space which, if the lines are near together, and the 
experiment be carefully performed, will give a very 
accurate outline of the blind spot in the eye. It will 
be found to differ in shape in different members of the 
class. It should be remembered that the eye is to be 
kept at a uniform distance from the page throughout 
the experiment. 

Dissection of a Rabbit or Cat. The teacher 
who desires to do thoroughly good work in teaching 
physiology should not fail to make a dissection before 
the class of a rabbit or a cat. In no other way can 
such a vivid representation of the organs of the body 
and their functions be brought before the pupil's eyes. 
You may describe accurately the action of the heart, 
but your class will never fully realize what it means 
until a heart has been seen in action. There need be 
no hesitancy because of the specious arguments against 
vivisection: an animal under the influence of ether 
is dead to pain. When a dissection is to be made, let 
the animal, either a rabbit or a cat, be placed in a close 
box, in which has been placed a sponge, or cloth, 
moderately wet with ether. It is convenient to have 
a glass window in the top of the box, so that one may 
know at once when the anaesthetic has taken effect. 
Do not keep the box so tightly closed as to smother 
the animal. When thoroughly insensible, remove the 
animal from the box. Have some one keep the sponge 



212 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

or cloth near the animal's nose continually. Be par- 
ticular about this. Stretch the animal upon its back 
on a board, and draw all its feet out and fasten them to 
the sides of the board with strings. Part the fur, and 
make an incision through the skin upon the median 
line from the throat across the thoracic and abdominal 
cavities, but do not cut through into the thoracic cavity 
in the first of the dissection, as that would cause the 
lungs to collapse, when the functions of life would 
shortly end. Make an incision into the abdominal 
cavity below the diaphragm, and observe the position 
of the stomach, liver, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, large 
and small intestines. If there is food in the animal's 
stomach, notice the congested appearance of that organ. 
Observe carefully the peristaltic action of the intes- 
tinesthe instant of rest followed by the peculiar 
writhing motion which marks the function. 

With a thin scalpel or small knife, carefully detach 
a small bit of the thin, almost transparent membrane 
which invests the intestines. This is the peritonaeum 
which slings the intestines to the walls of the abdom- 
inal cavity. Notice the action of the diaphragm as it 
expands and contracts with every breath. Carefully 
raise the intestines from their position, and find the 
large blood-vessels that follow the course of the spinal 
column down from the heart. Distinguish between 
the veins and the arteries. If an artery is cut in your 
work, pick it up at once with pincers and tie it. Notice 
the white appearance of the cut end. Cut through into 
the cavity of the thorax and notice the collapsed lungs 
their color, form, and general consistency. Notice 
their covering. Raise the lungs carefully, and notice 
the working of the heart. Try to distinguish the two 



PHYSIOLOGY. 213 

impulses of a single beat. Observe carefully the auri- 
cles and the apex (the lower point). Notice that it is 
the striking of this point against the wall of the thorax 
which gives the impression of a beat when the hand is 
held over the heart. Distinguish the pericardium, or 
sac in which the heart is contained. Trace the aorta 
and the various veins and arteries connected with the 
heart, naming the most important. Cut open the 
covering of the throat, laying bare the trachea. Ob- 
serve the hard rings nearly encircling it, and behind 
this the oesophagus. Follow the trachea down to the 
bronchi. Trace the large veins of the throat. When 
all these points have been carefully studied, remove 
the heart by cutting away its attachments, and place 
it in water slightly warm. It will beat for some time. 
If placed in cold water, it will stop beating, but on 
being returned to the warm fluid it will resume its 
beats if it still retains its vitality ; that is, if the experi- 
ment has been carefully made, and the heart has not 
been too long removed from the body. 

In cutting into the thoracic cavity, the sternum will 
have to be removed. This may be done by severing 
the attachment of the ribs with stout shears. 

To show the action of the lungs in breathing, remove 
the lungs and trachea intact. Place them in a large 
empty bottle, with the trachea projecting through a 
hole in the cork. Eender the bottle air-tight by means 
of sealing-wax placed about the trachea and the edges 
of the cork. Place a small bellows, or rubber bulb, 
over the open end of the trachea. In this way the lungs 
can be inflated, when the air in the bottle will become 
compressed. Remove the pressure of the bulb, or bel- 



214 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

lows, and the air in the bottle will expand and drive out 
the air from the lungs, which will then be in a state of 
collapse. Repeat this regularly fifteen times per min- 
ute, and a very successful exhibition of the action of 
the lungs in breathing will be afforded. 



SEAT-WORK. 215 



CHAPTEE XI. 

SEAT -WORK 

What is Gained by Seat-work. Would you 
reduce discipline to a minimum of effort, keep your 
scholars busy, taking great care that there be variety 
in their work. Have you yet, do you think, fully real- 
ized how much there is in this? 

Copying Reading Lessons. Direct pupils to 
copy carefully upon their slates the reading lesson just 
finished, or the lesson to be read to-morrow. See that 
there is no hurried work. Inspect all work and ap- 
prove every effort that shows the pupil has tried. 

In this copying the pupil is aiding himself in spelling, 
by impressing the forms of the words upon his mind ; 
he is getting practice in writing ; he is indirectly learn- 
ing to capitalize and punctuate ; and, besides this, what 
he does is of direct value to him in reading. 

Seat-work in Reading. Suppose the following 
words are printed at the head of the reading lesson: 
slate name bird pane 

gave cage some mate 

face Dick come skate 

frame cake that came 

Write this direction upon the blackboard, viz. : 

Copy the words upon the slate in regular order; 
study them from left to right; study them from bot- 
tom to top ; study them from right to left ; place the fig- 
ure 1 beside the words beginning with a &, 2 beside those 
beginning with c, 3 beside those beginning with d, etc. 



216 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Thinking of Words. To afford variety in seat- 
work, direct pupils to make on their slates a list of all 
words they can think- of that have three letters in 
them ; on another day, a list of words having four let- 
ters only. The number may be increased, as the pu- 
pils advance in knowledge. 

Building Up Words. For pupils in the primary 
class write upon the blackboard parts of words as fol- 
lows: 



at 


an 


all 


ad 


eat 


ell 


and 


at 


an 


all 


ad 


eat 


ell 


and 


at 


an 


all 


ad 


eat 


ell 


and 


at 


an 


all 


ad 


eat 


ell 


and 


at 


an 


all 


ad 


eat 


eU 




at 


an 


all 


ad 


eat 


eU 





Direct the class to form words by putting one or 
more letters before each part. Other parts of words 
will readily occur to the teacher. 

Suggestions for Seat-work. Write short sen- 
tences on the blackboard, and require them to be 
copied. 

Have the Roman letters and numbers of the pages 
in the reading-book copied. 

Shoe-pegs cost ten cents a quart. They can be easily 
colored by soaking them in any of the aniline dyes. 
Distribute these to the smallest pupils and let them form 
designs, and copy the designs upon their slates. Pu- 
pils may also form little arithmetical examples upon 
their desks. 

Upon pieces of card-board copy examples to be 



. - 
SEAT-WORK. 217 

worked, tables to be filled out, words and sentences 
to be copied. 

Write a neat little letter upon the blackboard, and 
let pupils copy it on their slates. 

Take card-board and cut it up into half -inch squares. 
Print letters on these squares, and let pupils form 
words with these letters. As soon as a word is formed, 
it may be copied on the slate. 

Place a number of red, blue, and yellow inch squares 
of bristol-board in envelopes, and, distributing these, 
have children form designs, each following his own 
fancy. 

Bring in leaves of different shapes, distribute these, 
and let children place them on their slates and draw 
an outline by tracing around them. 

Give pupils geometrical forms cut from card-board, 
and let them trace the outlines of these upon their 
slates. 

Dissected Pictures and Maps. Another way 
in which to interest and keep small children busy is 
to take pictures from the illustrated papers, being 
careful always that the pictures are meritorious, and 
paste them upon pasteboard; then cut the whole into 
squares, triangles, etc. Give these parts to the pupil 
and let him properly re-arrange them. By using maps 
in the same way, considerable knowledge of geography 
will be imparted. 

Number. Let the pupil arrange and add such 
numbers as will give successively as right-hand figures 
1, 2, 3, 4, etc. Thus: 



218 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

9-7-21 Give 1 as 1 + 11 Give 2 as 2+11 Give 3 as 

8 + 3 I right- 9 + 3 ! right- 9+4 I right- 

7+4 ( hand 8+4 f hand 8 + 5 f hand 

6+5 J figure. 7+5 J figure. 7+6 J figure. 

Put tables upon the board like the following, and 
let pupils supply answers at their seats : 

4+=9 iof 4 = 

5x6= i of 12 = 

14-9= Jof 8 = 

20 -f- =5 fof!2 = 

36 9= fof 9 = 

46 -f- = 7 f of 16 = 

7x8= | of 6 = 

Direct pupils to write on slates what is necessary to 
make a full table. 

$10 + $6 = x = 8 

9c. + 4c. = + = 7 

6 qts. + 9 qts. = = 11 

2 qts. + 3 pts. = -* = 3 

2 yds. + 2 ft. = x = 18 

Iqt. +llgal. = +=13 

5 in. + li f t. = - = 17 

-*-= 6 

Illustrated Examples. Set pupils to making 
original examples and illustrating them, or give them 
the examples to illustrate ; as, add i, i, i, f , i. 



Ans.l|. 



SEAT- WORK. 



219 




If a daisy has 21 leaves 
and 9 fall off, how many are 
left? 

21 
9 

12 left. Ans. 12. 



If a forget-me-not has 6 petals, 
how many petals will 5 forget- 
me-nots have? 

6 

5 



30 petals. 



3i = how 
many halves ? 



OXDODO 



Ans. 3 = 




In a house show- 
ing eight windows, 
with twelve panes 
in each window, 
how many panes 
^$ are seen? 

12 
8 

% panes. 



220 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 



What will a stone wall cost 18 ft. long and 9 ft. 
high, at $2.00 a 
sq. yd. ? 

18 ft. = 6 yds. 
9ft. =3 yds. 



$2.00 
18 



18 yds. 



$36.00 Ans. 




Geography. Rule the board for the number of 
columns desired, and write at the head the subject ; as, 
rivers, islands, etc. At the head of each column 
write the headings suggested below. One or two ex- 
amples may be written out, to give the pupil an idea of 
what is desired ; then he can fill the columns to any 
length. Below are some suggestions for rivers, 
islands, gulfs, bays, etc. 



RIVERS. 



NAME. 


SOURCE. 


DIRECTION. 


OUTLET. 


Kennebec 


Moosehead Lake. 


South 


Atlantic Ocean. 


Mississippi 


Itasca Lake 


South 


Gulf of Mexico 











ISLANDS. 



NAME. 


SITUATION. 


SURROUNDED BY. 


BELONGS TO. 


St. Helena 


West of Africa 


Atlantic Ocean . 


England. 











SEAT- WORK 

ISTHMUSES. 



221 



NAME. 


WHAT CONNECT. 


WATERS SEPARATED. 


Panama 


North America and South 
America. 


Caribbean Sea and Pacific 
Ocean. 





GULFS, BAYS, AND SEAS. 



NAME. 


WHERE. 


TRIBUTARY TO. 


BY. 


Baffin Bay 
Red Sea 


N. of N. A 
N E of Africa.. 


Atlantic Ocean . . 
Indian Ocean 


Davis Straits. 
Bab-el-Mandeb. 


Gulf of Mexico.. 


S.ofU. S 


Atlantic Ocean . . 


Florida Straits. 



MOUNTAINS. 



NAME. 


WHERE SITUATED. 


HIGHEST PEAK. 


White 


New Hampshire 


Mt. Washington. 









LAKES. 



NAME. 


WHERE SITUATED. 


OUTLET. 


Erie 


Between U. S. and Canada. 


Niagara River. 


Itasca 


Minnesota 


Mississippi River. 



CAPES, PROMONTORIES, AND PENINSULAS. 



NAME. 


WHERE. 


PROJECTS INTO. 


Lower California 


West of Mexico 


Pacific Ocean. 





222 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Anagrams. A device for seat-work that will be 
found both interesting and profitable is the making of 
anagrams. Select a word of moderate length made 
up about equally of vowels and consonants, and ask 
the pupils to form as many new words as possible, 
using only a part, or all, of the letters found in the 
original word ; forming in the first place words that 
begin with the first letter of this word, then those be- 
ginning with the second letter. 

Blackboard for Lowest Grade. If you have a 
primary department in your school, you should have a 
blackboard that will accommodate ten or twelve pupils, 
giving about eighteen inches of running space to each 
pupil. Have the board low enough for them to reach ; 
and if this is not possible, have a platform built so that 
the little ones can reach the board, which we here sup- 
pose is above wainscoting a yard high. Divide the 
board into spaces by painted lines, put an eraser and 
crayon at each place, and send your little ones in 
groups to this board. Don't fret over them. Let them 
alone. If a pupil is disorderly, deprive him of the 
privilege of going to the board. When your little ones 
are at the board, go on with your other work, and let 
them mark away as they want to. All sorts of fan- 
tastic drawings will be made. But the rest it gives 
the little ones! the rest it gives the teacher! and a 
thousand times more than all is the play it gives to 
the little folks' imaginations. 

Derivatives from Primitive Words. A valua- 
ble drill in spelling can be made by putting exercises 
like the following upon the board and directing pu- 
pils to form the words at their seats : 



SEAT- WORK 



223 



Make these words end in ing : 



Make these end in ed : 
awake listen 

start point 

hop wrap 

Add ly to these words: 
real true 

even hard 

hasty general 

ill equal 

Add en to these words: 
short sweet 

rot fall 

awake bid 

rid shake 



run 


fail 


give 


forget 


fly 


dig 


knit 


shut 


swim 


win 


wring 


quit 


dance 


knot 


stay 


drop 


lag 


slam 


whole 


slow 


wide 


able 


single 


separate 


angry 


pretty 


fat 


ripe 


sharp 


flat 


eat 


forsake 


take 


length 



224 SCHOOL DEVICES. 



CHAPTER XII. 

DRA WING. 

Drawing from Models. We give herewith illus- 
trations of a number of models, with which any 
teacher may provide himself, as many of them he 
can make, while the rest can he obtained from any 
mechanic of ordinary ability at a trifling cost. Begin 
with the simplest forms, as the cubes and the other 
rectangular solids, placing the model in such a posi- 
tion that the lights and shadows will be brought out 
sharply. Teach the pupil to regard the form of the 
object as made up of these lights and shadows, rather 
than direct his attention to an imaginary line bound- 
ing the figure. Do not have the outline of these 
models drawn, but let the pupil biing out their form 
wholly by shading. There are no lines in nature, 
the sharp edge of a cube, on which the light falls 
strongly, being only the abrupt termination of a 
shadow. More satisfactory results can be obtained 
from teaching drawing in this way than from the 
ordinary custom of drawing an outline. Do not ex- 
pect too much at first; perhaps the pupil has not 
been accustomed to look at an object in this way, but 
he will soon learn that the only things that give form 
to any object are the lights and shadows, after which 



DRAWING. 225 

he will be prepared to make advancement, and such 
advancement as really advances. 

After the model has been copied from one point of 
view, change it to other positions in successive lessons. 
We have numbered the models, and combinations of 
models, to show the order in which they should be 
given to a class. We have suggested in the illustra- 
tions a few of the combinations which can be used 
when the pupil has acquired facility in drawing simple 
forms ; but the combinations which any teacher can 
form for himself are almost endless. Care should be 
taken, however, in combining the simple solids, that 
difficulties be presented gradually to the pupil. Make 
at each lesson the combinations a little more difficult 
to draw. 

A Harmful Practice. Do not allow your pupils 
to copy pictures, as those who gain their experience 
from this kind of work are usually at a loss to know 
what to do when they come to copy directly from 
nature. 

Drawing from Nature. When the pupils have 
gained facility in copying, in various positions and com- 
binations, the models here represented, select for them 
simple objects directly from nature, as a jagged rock, 
a knotted piece of wood, a branch of a tree, a simple 
flower, or fruit of different kinds. 

A Concession. While we regard the plan of 
drawing without outlines as the one that will yield the 
most satisfactory results, yet, if this plan seems imprac- 
ticable to any teacher by reason of not having learned 
to use the pencil in that way himself, let outlines be 



226 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 



used ; but encourage the pupil to depend upon them as 
little as possible. 

Shading. In the illustrations which are given, but 
little attempt has been made at shading, as that could 
be represented only by elaborate engraving. To bring 
out the full values of the lights and shadows when 
copying, let a piece of drab-colored cloth drawn tightly 
over a wooden frame be placed behind the model. 




DRAWING. 



227 






228 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 






u 



12. 





DRAWING. 



229 




230 



SCHOOL DEVIOUS. 




DRAWING. 



231 






232 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 






DRAWING. 



233 






234 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 





Designing. Excellent work in designing can be 
done by the following plan: Cut from pasteboard a 
number of squares, circles, equilateral triangles, hex- 
agons, and even octagons. The squares should be 
about two inches on a side, and the circles have the 
same length for their diameter. Show pupils that by 
placing the pasteboard figures upon tea-paper, and 
marking around them with lead-pencil, a block is 
formed, which gives them a geometrical basis for a 
design. Let the pupils fill in the figures as their in- 
vention suggests. 

In nearly every toy-shop a little box of French 
crayons of different colors can be had for five cents. 
With these let pupils color their designs. Color de- 
lights a child's eye, and his interest in designing will 



DRAWING. 235 

be greatly enhanced by the use of these crayons. To 
prevent the color from blurring, dissolve a little white 
shellac in alcohol, and blow it over the design with an 
atomizer. The colors are thus firmly fixed. To incite 
interest, pin up the best designs in the schoolroom 
where they may be seen by all the school. 



236 



SCHOOL DEVICES. 



The diagrams given below illustrate and suggest the 
geometrical bases for designs : 




PENMANSHIP AND APPARATUS. 237 



CHAPTEE XIH. 

PENMANSHIP AND APPARA- 
TUS. 

Order in which Letters Should be Taught. 
In teaching penmanship the following order in which 
the capitals should be taught is one founded upon wide 

experience: 



^. In this way all the letters that are simi- 
t 

larly formed will be taught at once. The following 
is the order for small letters: ^ ^ ^ , ^ -^ 



/ X 
ff' /'//'/?' J ^ ter ^ e l^ers have all been formed, 

the teacher should lose no time in building words and 
sentences. In the latter the capitals can be taught, 
though work with these is much slower than with 
small letters. Of course the small letters should be 
taught first, and such words as man, etc., should be 
written as soon as the single letters forming the words 
have been learned. 



238 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Suggestions. In order to secure good results in 
penmanship, the boards should be ruled with six lines, 
as well as the slates, and the letters formed in proper 
proportions. The slates should be furnished by the 
school. Thorough inspection and approval of the 
work by the teacher are necessary. The children should 
be incited to take the utmost pains with the work. 
Let it be understood that no one can write who will 
not do this. Very soon they will come to have a pride 
in their work. 

This plan should be used for the first two years. 



In the third year the slates and boards should be 
ruled, but with the second and fifth lines omitted. 
Thorough inspection and approval of all work should 
be practised throughout the year. It is specially im- 
portant that the pupil do not form two styles of 
writing. In doing this his progress is greatly hin- 
dered, and much of his previous drill is rendered use- 
less. In the second year, practice-paper and lead- 
pencils may be used; in the third year, pen and ink. 
For ruling a blackboard with the six lines used in 
writing, have the lines painted on the board, or use a 
frame made of six slats where it is necessary to rule 



PENMANSHIP AND APPARATUS. 239 

in crayon. A similar frame, on a smaller scale, can 
be used for ruling slates. Place this on the slate, and 
draw lines with the point of a file or an awl. 

As a matter of convenience and economy, add a 
little water from time to time to the ink-wells, as the 
water in the ink evaporates. If this is not done, the 
ink will become too thick. 

Insist upon the pupil holding his pen correctly. Ex- 
ercise care that the pupil does not copy the same word 
a great many times, as he will thus copy his mistakes. 

As soon as possible give attention to proper move- 
ment in writing. Let the hand slide on the little finger. 
Practice this a great deal on trial-paper, making ovals, 
curves, etc., with very little shading, if any. 

Lead your pupils to keep prominently in mind that 
graceful movement makes graceful writing. 

Criticism. In teaching writing, as in many other 
branches, criticism is invaluable. Occasionally place 
a word or letter on the board, and ask questions about 
it. Or take the work of a number of pupils and ask 
the class to criticise. In this way their attention will 
be brought sharply to any defects that may exist. 

Teach pupils to criticise their own work in writing 
also, and when they discover a fault to work until the 
fault is overcome. The teacher must pass among his 
pupils, continually assisting them in this work of 
criticism, as their judgments will often be found in- 
correct. The formation by the learner of the habit of 
criticism is of the highest value in acquiring a fluent 
and even handwriting. Constant practice is, of course, 
necessary ; but to make this the most effective, there 
should be continual comparison of the incorrect with 
the correct form. 



240 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

Primary Writing. It is of the utmost importance 
that the teacher be a good writer before he attempts 
to teach the subject. If you are not proficient in this 
matter, persevering practice will make you so. The 
pupils should work from copies placed upon the board 
by the teacher, and not from charts, as there is neces- 
sarily a certain stiffness about these. Do not make 
the time of practice too long, as the pupils will thus 
become wearied and so lose interest. A few moments 
twice a day will produce better results than the same 
length of time occupied at one sitting. 

Charts Adapted to One's Need. Any teacher 
at all apt at drawing or copying may make for him- 
self charts to aid in his work. Stout maniUa- paper 
may be used, and, if necessary, colored crayons. It is 
a fact recognized by all teachers that no text-book is 
perfectly adapted to one's work. The teacher, there- 
fore, who is progressive seeks to supplement the text- 
book. Charts made by himself will stand in good 
stead for a part of this supplemental work. Take, for 
instance, the subject of arithmetic: examples, prob- 
lems, diagrams for teaching mensuration, are some of 
the things that may be put upon charts. Then, in his- 
tory, plans of battles drawn upon a larger scale, make 
movements and positions more prominent. In physi- 
ology, in physics, in botany, in astronomy, in book- 
keeping, there are often found better diagrams in 
other text-books than there are in the text-books 
adopted; these, as well as the excellent diagrams in 
books not accessible to the class, can be drawn upon 
manilla-paper in the way we have suggested above. 

It involves too much work, some may object. Yet 



PENMANSHIP AND APPARATUS. 



241 



can it not be said justly that such an outfit ought 
rightfully to be expected of the teacher? Take the case 
of a carpenter. What is his outfit? A chest of tools, 
by no means an inexpensive equipment, and, in ad- 
dition, fifteen or twenty dollars a year is required to 
make up the loss from wear and tear. Is anything 
similar to this required of the average teacher? Has 
he any right, therefore, to complain of the work in- 
volved in securing for himself an equal equipment? 

An Ink-well Filler. A simple and unequalled ink- 




well filler is shown in the accompanying figure. A 
stopper is fitted to an ordinary quart ink-bottle, and 
through this are passed two pieces of glass tubing, easily 
bent in the manner shown in the figure, by heating 



242 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

them in the flame of an alcohol lamp. To the piece of 
tubing reaching nearly to the bottom of the bottle is 
attached a piece of quarter-inch rubber tubing, which 
can be had at any drug-store. On blowing into the 
short tube the ink will be forced out through the rub- 
ber tube, and by pinching the rubber tubing near the 
end the flow of ink can be stopped at will. If one is 
careful in pinching the end, not a particle of ink need 
be dropped, and on this account the filler does its work 
in a cleanly way. It is only necessary to blow into the 
short tube but once to start the flow, as the long tube 
acts as a siphon. To stop the flow of ink, lift the 
rubber tubing up so that the ink in it will flow back 
into the bottle. 

A Wash-bottle for Slates. A wash-bottle may 
be made by inserting a piece of sponge into the neck 
of a small bottle as a stopper, leaving part of the 
sponge without the bottle, which has previously been 
filled with water. 

A Substitute for Compasses. Take a piece of 
pasteboard or thick paper and make a hole in one end, 
and in the other end a number of holes at varying dis- 
tances. A pin at one end and the point of a lead-pen- 
cil inserted in one of the holes at the other end com- 
pletes the substitute. 

Selecting a Thermometer. A thermometer 
should be in every schoolroom, and the temperature 
kept as near 68 as possible. On windy days, when the 
cold is searching, the temperature should be 70. 

In selecting a thermometer, pick out a half-dozen 



PENMANSHIP AND APPARATUS. 243 

which vary but little from one another. Find the 
average temperature of the six, and purchase the one 
differing the least from this average. You will then 
be likely to secure an instrument that will indicate ap- 
proximately correct temperature. It is nearly impos- 
sible to get a perfectly accurate instrument at a low 
price. 

A Cabinet of Productions. For use in geogra- 
phy classes collect and arrange in a case, vegetable and 
mineral products, as cotton, flax, vegetable ivory, dif- 
ferent woods, coffee berries, indigo, rice in the hull, 
mace, cochineal, vanilla, cinchona-bark, saltpetre, 
caoutchouc, gypsum, hemp, iron ore, copper ore, lead 
ore, graphite, etc. When studying a locality noted 
for any of these productions, have them before the 
class. 

Tracing-stencil. A stencil that will furnish a 
large number of copies of objects, words, etc., in out- 
line dots, for pupils to draw, can be made by tracing 
the pattern on paper, then with an unthreaded sewing- 
machine follow the lines. Place this upon the draw- 
ing-paper and rub powdered crayon over the holes 
thus formed ; an outline copy in dotted lines will be 
found underneath, which the pupil can trace with 
pencil. This same plan can be used in numberless 
ways that will readily occur to the teacher. 

Slating. Take fine rotten-stone, lamp-black, alco- 
hol, and shellac. If this is not practicable, take a 
pound of glue and dissolve it in five quarts of water, 
add enough lamp-black to make a good body, together 
with a small quantity of alcohol. 



244 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

The Hectograph. Few teachers recognize the 
service which a hectograph may be to them in their 
work. Examination questions, test problems, etc., 
suggest the frequent need of such a help. 

Any one, with but little trouble, can make one for 
himself, which will last for a long time, and prove a 
great saving of time and labor. The usual manner of 
making is to take two parts of glue and one of glycer- 
ine. The glue should be dissolved in water. While the 
glue is still hot add the glycerine, and boil until it is of 
the proper consistency. 

Another plan is to take of glue four parts, glycerine 
two parts, barium sulphate, finely powdered, one part 
(one part of kaoline may be used instead), water fif- 
teen parts. A rectangular tin pan, half an inch deep, 
will hold the mixture. Aniline ink should be used. 

Colored Crayons. These can be made from the 
white school crayon by boiling in any of the aniline 
dyes, dissolved in hot water. The crayons should be 
kept from the sunlight, as they fade in it. 



BIBLE READINGS. 245 



CHAPTER XIV. 

BIBLE READINGS. 

September July. 

Bible Readings. It comes very near the truth to 
say that the great body of teachers who are called 
upon to read some selection of Scripture to their 
schools each morning have no collection of passages 
marked out, but pick up their readings from morning 
to morning in a hurried and desultory way. Observa- 
tion testifies that in hundreds of cases blunders are 
made and chapters unsuitable for school use are read. 

The reading of a chapter in this haphazard way of 
selecting can be nothing other than indifferent. And 
herein is an opportunity lost ; for there is great influ- 
ence and majesty in the Scriptures when read well 
and impressively. 

The passages here arranged for each day and week 
of the school-year have been carefully selected. Ex- 
cept in a few instances, where the thought of a chap- 
ter would be mutilated by giving a part only, the 
readings are short, as readings from the Bible should 
be in the schoolroom. The words difficult of pro- 
nunciation have been noted, and are correctly marked 
under the selection in which they occur. 



246 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

SEPTEMBER. 

FIEST 'WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

The Gospel of St. John, Oh. 1. 1st to 19th verse. 
The Divinity of Christ. 

TUESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. I. 19th to 35th verse. 
John's Testimony of Christ. 

Bethabara = Beth'ab'a-ra, 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. I. 35th verse to end. 
Andrew and Peter called. 

Bethsaida = Beth'sa'i-da. 

THURSDAY. 

St. John, Ch. II. 1st to 18th verse. 
The Marriage in Cana. 

FRIDAY. 

St. John, Ch. II. 18th verse to end, and Ch. III. 25th 
verse to end. 

John testifieth of Christ. 

SECOND WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. John, Ch. IV. 1st to 27th verse. 

The Samaritan Woman at the Well. 



BIBLE READINGS. 247 

TUESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. IV. 27th to 43d verse. 
Christ's Zeal for God's Glory. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. IV. 43d verse to end, and to 10th verse 
of Ch. 5. 

Christ's Healing. 

THURSDAY. 
St. John, Ch. V. 10th to 39th verse. 

Christ declares Himself to the Jews. 

FRIDAY. 

St. John, Ch. V. 39th verse to end, and to 16th verse 
of Ch. VI. 

Five Thousand fed with Five Loaves and Two 
Fishes. 

THIRD WEEK. 

MONDAY. 
St. John, Ch. VI. 16th to 41st verse. 

Christ reproves His Carnal Followers. 

TUESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. VI. 41st to 66th verse. 
The Bread of Life. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. VII. 1st to 19th verse. 
Christ teaches in the Temple, 



248 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

THURSDAY. 

St. John, Ch. VIII. 12th to 31st verse. 
Christ the Light of the World. 

FRIDAY. 

St. John, Ch. VIII. 42d verse to end. 
Keproving the Unbelieving Jews. 

FOURTH WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. John, Ch. IX. 1st to 26th verse. 
A Blind Man's Sight restored. 

TUESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. X. 1st to 19th verse. 
The Good Shepherd. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. X. 19th verse to end. 
Christ's Unity with the Father 

THURSDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XEI. 1st to 9th verse, and 23d to 37th verse. 
Anointing Jesus' Feet, and the Father testifieth 
of Christ. 

Spikenard = Spik'nard. 

FRIDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XH. 37th verse to end. 
Unbelief of the Jews. 

Esaias = E-za'yas. 



BIBLE BEADINGS. 249 

OCTOBER. 

FIRST WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XIII. 1st to 18th verse. 
Christ teaches Humility. 

TUESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XIII. 18th to 36th versa 
Christ foretells His Betrayal. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XIV. 1st to 15th verse. 
Promise of the Comforter. 

THURSDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XV. 1st to 18th verse. 
Promise of the Comforter. 

FRIDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XV. 18th verse to the 8th verse of 
Ch. XVI. 

Persecution of Disciples foretold. 

SECOND WEEK. 
MONDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XVII. entire. 

Christ prays for His Disciples. 



250 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

TUESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XVIII. 1st to 25th verse. 
Judas Betrays Christ. 

Malchus = Mal'kus. 
Caiphas = Ca'ya-fas. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XVIII. 28th verse to end. 
Jesus accused before Pilate. 

THURSDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XIX. 1st to 25th verse. 
Crucifixion of Christ. 

Gabbatha = Gab'ba-tha. 
Golgotha = Gdl'go-tha. 

FRIDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XIX. 25th verse to end. 
Burial of Christ. 

Cleophas = Cle'o-phas. 
Magdelene = Mag'da-le'ne. 
Aramathea = Ar-a-ma-the'a. 

THIRD WEEK. 

MONDAY. 
St. John, Ch. XX. 1st to 19th verse. 

Mary Magdalene comes to the Sepulchre. 

TUESDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XX. 19th verse to end. 
Christ appears to His Disciples. 



BIBLE READINGS. 251 



WEDNESDAY. 



St. John, Ch. XXI. 1st to 15th verse. 
Miraculous Draught of Fishes. 

THURSDAY. 

St. John, Ch. XXI. 15th verse to end, 
Christ's Charge to Peter. 

FRIDAY. 

Acts, Ch. IX. 1st to 10th verse. 
Saul's Conversion. 



FOURTH "WEEK. 
MONDAY. 

Acts, Ch. IX. 10th to 23d verse. 
Paul preaches at Damascus. 

TUESDAY. 

Acts, Ch. IX. 23d to 32d verse. 

The Jews lie in Wait for PauL 

WEDNESDAY. 

Acts, Ch. XII. 1st to 20th verse. 
An Angel liberates Peter. 

THURSDAY. 

Acts, Ch. XIII. 42d verse to end. 

Paul and Barnabas persecuted. 



252 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

FRIDAY. 
Acts, Oh. XVI. 9th to 25th verse. 

Paul converteth Lydia. Paul and Silas im- 
prisoned. 

NOVEMBER. 

FIRST w y.TnK"- 

MONDAY. 
Acts, Ch. XVI. 25th verse to end. 

Paul and Silas released from Prison. 

TUESDAY. 
Acts, Ch. XVII. 1st to 16th verse. 

Paul preached at Thessalonica and Berea. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Acts, Ch. XVII. 16th to 34th verse. 
Paul's Discourse on Mars Hill. 

THURSDAY. 

Acts, Ch. XIX. 21st verse to end. 
The Uproar at Ephesus. 

FRIDAY. 
Acts, Ch. XX. 16th verse to end. 

Paul's Charge to the Elders of Ephesus. 

SECOND. WEEK. 

MONDAY. 
Acts, Ch. XXI. 2d to 20th verse. 

Paul's Apprehension in the Temple. 



BIBLE READINGS. 253 



TUESDAY. 



Acts, Oh. XXI. 37th to 22d in XXII. 
Paul's Address to the Jews. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Acts, Oh. XXII. 22d to 12th in XXIII. 
Paul pleads his Cause. 

THURSDAY. 

Acts, Ch. XXIII. 12th verse to end. 
Paul sent to Felix. 

Lysias = Lish'i-as. 
Antipatris = An-tip'a-tris. 
Cilicia = Si-lish'i-a. 

FRIDAY. 

Acts, Ch. XXIV. entire. 

Paul's Defence before Felix. 

Porcius = Por'shi-us. 



THIRD "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Acts, Ch. XXV. 1st to 13th verse, 
Paul appeals unto Caesar. 

TUESDAY. 

Acts, Ch. XXV. 13th verse to end. 
Festus declares Paul Innocent. 
Bernice = Ber-m'ce. 



254 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

WEDNESDAY. 
Acts, Ch. XXVI. entire. 
Paul before Agrippa. 

THURSDAY. 

Acts, Ch. XXVII. 1st to 27th verse. 
Paul's Voyage. 

Aristarchus = Ar'is-tarlnis. 
Thessalonica = Thes'sa-lo-m'ca. 
Pamphylia = Pani phyl'i a. 
Lycia = Lish'i-a. 

Cnidus = Nfdus. 

Lasea = La-se'a. 

FRIDAY. 

Acts, Ch. XXVII. 27th verse to end. 
Paul's Shipwreck. 

FOUBTH "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Acts, Ch. XXVIII. 1st to 17th verse. 
Paul arrives at Eome. 

Melita = Mel'i-ta. 
Rhegium = Rhe'gi-um (re 7 -). 
Puteoli = Pu-te'o-li. 
Appii = Ap'pi-i. 

TUESDAY. 
Acts, Ch. XXVIII. 17th verse to end. 

Paul commends his Calling to the Romans, 
Esaias = E-za/yas. 



BIBLE READINGS. 255 

WEDNESDAY. 
1 Corinthians, Ch. II. entire. 

Christ the only Foundation. 

THURSDAY. 

1 Corinthians, Ch. XIII. entire. 
Excellence of Charity. 

FRIDAY. 

1 Corinthians, Ch. XV. 1st to 24th verse. 
Of Christ's Eesurrection. 

FIFTH 'WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Ephesians, Ch. VI. 1st to 19th verse. 
Christ's Armor. 

TUESDAY. 
Revelation, Ch. IV. entire. 

The Throne seen by John. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Revelation, Ch. V. entire. 
The Sealed Book. 

THURSDAY. 
Revelation, Ch. VI. entire. 

The Opening of the Seals. 

FRIDAY. 

Revelation, Ch. VII. 1st to 4th verse, and 9th to end. 
Number of the Sealed. 



256 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

DECEMBER. 

FIRST "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Revelation, Ch. VIII. entire. 
Seventh Seal opened. 

TUESDAY. 

Revelation, Ch. XX. entire. 
The Last Judgment. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Revelation, Ch. XXII. 1st to 15th verse,, 
The State of the Redeemed. 

THURSDAY. 

Psalms, LXXII. 1st to 20th verse. 
The Kingdom of Messiah. 

FRIDAY. 
Psalms, XV. and XVI. 

Resurrection of the Messiah. 

SECOND WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Isaiah, Ch. XXV. 1st to 10th verse. 
Blessings of the Gospel. 

TUESDAY. 

Isaiah, Ch. XL. 1st to the llth verse. 
Glad Tidings proclaimed. 



BIBLE READINGS. 257 

WEDNESDAY. 



St. Mark, Ch. X. 13th to 32d verse. 
Christ blesses Children. 

THURSDAY. 

St. Mark, Ch. XI. 1st to 20th verse. 
Christ's Entry into Jerusalem. 

FRIDAY. 

St. Mark, Ch. XI. 20th verse to end. 
The Fig-tree cursed. 



THIRD WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. Mark, Chap. XII. 1st to 18th verse. 
Parable of the Vineyard. 

TUESDAY. 

St. Mark, Ch. XII. 28th verse to end. 
The Great Commandment. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Isaiah, Ch. LIY. llth verse to end. 

Gracious Promise to the Church. 

THURSDAY. 

Isaiah, Ch. LIV. entire. 

Exhortation to Faith and Repentance, 



258 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

FRIDAY. 

Isaiah, Ch. LXI. entire. 
Office of Christ. 

FOUBTH WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Isaiah, Ch. LXIII. 1st to 15th verse and 17th verse 
to end. 

Christ shows His Power to save. 

TUESDAY. 

St. Luke, Ch. III. 1st to 19th verse. 
John's Testimony of Christ. 

Pontius = Pon'shi-us. 
Iturea = It'u-re'a. 

Trachonitis = Trak'o-nftis. 
Lysanias = Ly-sa/nias. 
Abilene = AM-le'ne. 
Caiaphas = Ca'ya-fas. 

WEDNESDAY. 
St. Luke, Ch. II. 8th to 21st verse. 

Good Tidings brought to the Shepherds. 

THURSDAY. 
St. Matthew, Ch. II. entire. 

The Wise Men worship Christ. 

FRIDAY. 
St. Matthew, Ch. III. entire. 

Preaching of John the Baptist. 



BIBLE HEADINGS. 259 

JANUARY. 

FIRST WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. IV. 1st to 18th verse. 
Christ is tempted. 

TUESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. IV. 18th verse to 13th of Ch. V. 
Christ begins His Ministry. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. V. 13th to 27th verse. 
Part of Sermon on the Mount. 

THURSDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. V. 33d verse to end. 
Charity enjoined. 

FRIDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. VI. 1st to 19th verse. 
Hypocrisy denounced. 

SECOND 'WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. VI. 19th verse to end. 
Contentment enjoined. 

TUESDAY. 
St. Matthew, Ch. VII. 1st to 15th verse. 



Faithful Prayer enjoined. 



260 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. VII. 15th verse to end. 
Caution against False Teachers. 

THURSDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. VIII. 1st to 18th verse. 
Christ heals many that are Sick. 

FRIDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. VEIL 18th verse to end. 
Christ stills a Tempest. 

Gergesenes = Grer'ge-senes. 

THIRD "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. IX. 1st to 18th verse. 
Christ cures the Palsy. 

TUESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. IX. 18th verse to end. 
The Ruler's Daughter raised. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. X. 1st to 16th verse. 
The Apostles sent forth. 

THURSDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. X. 16th verse to end. 
Christ instructs His Apostles. 



BIBLE READINGS. 261 



FRIDAY. 



St. Matthew, Ch. XI. 1st to 16th verse. 
John's Message to Christ. 



FOTTKTH WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XI. 16th verse to end. 
Chorazin and Bethsaida denounced. 
Chorazin = Ko-ra'zin. 
Bethsaida = Beth'sa'i-da. 

TUESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XII. 1st to 14th verse. 
Christ Lord of the Sabbath. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XII. 14th to 38th verse. 
Christ vindicates His Ministry. 

Beelzebub = Be-el'ze-bub. 

THURSDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XII. 46th verse to 10th verse ol Ch. 
XIII. 

Parable of the Sower. 

FRIDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XIII. 10th to 24th verse. 
Explanation of the Parable. 



262 SGHOOL DEVICES. 

FEBRUARY. 

FIRST "WEEK. 

MONDAY 

St. Matthew, Ch. XIII. 24th to 36th verse. 

Parables representing the Kingdom of Heaven. 

TUESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XIII. 36th to 47th verse. 

Parables representing the Kingdom of Heaven. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XIII. 47th verse to end. 
The Galileans despise Christ. 

THURSDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XIV. 1st to 22d verse. 
John the Baptist beheaded. 

FRIDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XIV. 22d verse to end. 
Christ walks upon the Sea. 

SECOND WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XV. 21st verse to end. 
Christ heals Great Multitudes. 



BIBLE HEADINGS. 263 

TUESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XVI. 1st to 13th verse. 
The Pharisees require a Sign. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XVI. 13th verse to end. 
Christ foretells His Death. 

THURSDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XVII. 1st to 14th verse. 
The Transfiguration of Christ. 

FRIDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XVII. 14th verse to end. 
The Tribute Money. 

THIBD "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch, XVIII. 1st to 21st versa 
Humility taught. 

TUESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XVIII. 21st verse to end, 
The Unforgiving Servant. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XIX. 13th verse to end. 
How to obtain Everlasting Life. 



264 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

THURSDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XX. 1st to 17th verse. 
Laborers in the Vineyard. 

FRIDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XX. 17th verse to end. 
The Disciples taught to be Lowly. 



POFKTH "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXT 12th to 28th verse. 

Buyers and Sellers driven out of the Temple. 

TUESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXI. 33d verse to end. 
The Wicked Husbandmen. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXII. 1st to 23d verse. 
Parable of the Marriage Feast. 

THURSDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXII. 34th verse to 13th verse of 
Ch. XXIII. 

Hypocrisy denounced. 

FRIDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXIII. 13th to 27th verse. 
The Pharisees denounced. 



BIBLE HEADINGS. 265 

MARCH. 

FIRST "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXIII. 27th verse to end. 
Pharisees denounced. 

Barachias = Bar'a-chi'as. 

TUESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXIV. 1st to 15th verse, and 23d to 
32d. 

Destruction of the Temple foretold. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXIV. 32d verse to end. 
The Sign of Christ's Coming. 

THURSDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXV. 1st to 14th verse. 
Parable of the Ten Virgins. 

FRIDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXV. 14th to 31st verse. 
Parable of the Talents. 

SECOND "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXV. 31st verse to end. 
Of the Last Judgment. 



266 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

TUESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXVI. 1st to 20tn verse. 
The Rulers conspire against Christ. 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXVI. 20th to 36th verse. 
The Passover. 

THURSDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXVI. 36th to 57th verse. 
Judas betrays Christ. 

FRIDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXVI. 57th verse to end. 
Christ accused before Caiaphas. 
Caiaphas = Ca/ya-fas. 

THIBD "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXVII. 1st to 27th versa 
Christ delivered bound to Pilate. 
Pontius = Pon'shi-us. 

TUESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXVII. 27th to 45th verse. 
Christ crucified. 

Cyrene = Cy-re'ne. 
Golgotha = Gol'go-tha. 



BIBLE READINGS. 267 

WEDNESDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXVII. 45th verse to end. 
The Burial of Christ. 

Sabachthani = Sa'bak-tha/m. 
Magdalene = Mag'da-le'ne. 

THURSDAY. 

St. Matthew, Ch. XXVIII. entire. 
The Resurrection. 

FRIDAY. 

Jeremiah, Ch. XVII. 9th verse to end. 
The Sabbath to be hallowed. 

FOUKTH WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Genesis, Ch. I. 1st to 20th verse. 
The Creation. 

TUESDAY. 

Genesis, Ch. I. 20th verse to end. 
The Creation continued. 

WEDNESDAY. 
Genesis, Ch. II. 1st to 18th verse. 

The First Sabbath and the Garden of Eden. 
Pison = Pi'son. 
Havilah = Hav'i-lah. 
Bdellium = Del'yum. 
Onyx = O'nyx. 
Hiddekel - Hid'de-kel. 



208 SCHOOL DEVIGES. 

THURSDAY. 

Genesis, Ch. VI. 5th verse to end. 
The Cause of the Flood. 

FRIDAY. 

Genesis, Ch. VII. llth verse to end. 
The Flood. 



FIFTH 'WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Genesis, Ch. VIII. 1st to 15th verse. 
The Waters assuage. 

TUESDAY. 

Genesis, Ch. XXXVII. 5th to 23d verse. 
Joseph's Two Dreams. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Genesis, Ch. XXXVII. 23d verse to end. 
Joseph sold as a Slave. 

THURSDAY. 

Deuteronomy, Ch. XXXIV. entire. 

Moses views the Promised Land. 

FRIDAY. 

Joshua, Ch. I. 1st to 12th verse. 
Joshua succeeds Moses. 



BIBLE READINGS. 269 

APRIL. 

FIRST "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 
Psalms I. and II. 

Happiness of the Godly. The Kingdom of Christ. 

TUESDAY. 
Psalm V. 

David's Prayer for Guidance. 

WEDNESDAY. 
Psalm VIII. 

God's Love to Man. 

THURSDAY. 
Psalm XVIII. 1st to 22d verse. 

Thanksgiving for Blessings. 

FRIDAY. 
Psalm XIX. 

Excellency of God's Laws. 

SECOND "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Psalms XXIII. and XXIV. 

The Sovereignty of God. 

TUESDAY. 
Psalm XXV. 

Prayer for Help in Affliction. 



270 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

WEDNESDAY. 
Psalin XXVII. 

David's Faith in God's Protection. 

THURSDAY. 
Psalm XXXIII. 

God's Goodness. 

FRIDAY. 
Psalm XXXIV. 

They are Blessed who trust in God. 

THIKD "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 
Job, Ch. XXVIII. entire. 

The Excellency of Wisdom. 

TUESDAY. 
Job, Ch. XXXVII. 1st to 24th verse. 

God to be feared for His Great Works. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Job, Ch. XXXVIII. 1st to 19th, omitting 8th verse. 
God convinceth Job of Ignorance. 

THURSDAY. 

1 Samuel, Ch. XVII. 1st to 12th verse. 
Goliath defies Israel. 

Shochoh = ShoTioh. 

Ephes-dammim = E'phes-dam'mim. 
Philistines = Phi-Hs'tmes. 



BIBLE HEADINGS.' 271 

FRIDAY. 

I Samuel, Ch. XVII. 12th to 32d verse. 
David comes to Camp. 

Ephrathite = Eph'rath-ite. 
Abinadab = A-bin'a-dab. 

FOURTH "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

1 Samuel, Ch. XVII. 32d to 55th, omitting 52d and 53d. 
David kills Goliath. 

TUESDAY. 

1 Samuel, Ch. XVII. 55th to 17th verse of Ch. XVIII. 
Jonathan loves David. 

WEDNESDAY. 

1 Samuel, Ch. XIX. 1st to 13th verse. 
David escapes from Saul. 

THURSDAY. 

1 Samuel, Ch. XX. 1st to 24th verse. 

Jonathan's Covenant with David. 
Naioth = Na/yoth. 

FRIDAY. 

1 Samuel, Ch. XX. 24th verse to end, omitting last 
clause of 30th verse. % 

Saul seeks to kill Jonathan. 



272 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

MAY. 

FUEST "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

2 Samuel, Ch. I. 1st to 13th verse. 
Tidings of Saul's Death. 

Amalekites = Am'a-lek-ites. 

TUESDAY. 

2 Samuel, Ch. I. 13th verse to end. 

David's Lamentation for Saul and Jonathan. 
Askelon = AsTse-lon. 

WEDNESDAY. 

2 Samuel, Ch. XXII. 1st to 23d verse. 

David's Thanksgiving for Deliverance. 

THURSDAY. 

1 Chronicles, Ch. XXII. 1st to llth verse. 

David's Charge to Solomon, 

FRIDAY. 

2 Chronicles, Ch. n. entire. 

The Building of the Temple. 

SECOND "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

2 Chronicles, Ch. VI. 12th to 28th and 36th to end. 
Solomon's Prayer at the Dedication. 



BIBLE READINGS. 273 

TUESDAY. 

1 Kings, Oh. X. 1st to 24th verse. 
The Queen of Sheba's Visit. 

WEDNESDAY. 

w 

1 Kings, Oh. XVII. entire. 
Elijah fed hy Eavens. 

Tishbite = Tishlrite. 
Cherith = Ke'rith. 
Zarephath = Zar'e-phath. 

THURSDAY. 
Proverbs, Oh. II. entire. 

Of the Excellency of Wisdom. 

FRIDAY. 

Proverbs, Oh. III. 13th verse to end. 
Benefits of Wisdom. 

THIBD WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Proverbs, Oh. IV. 1st to 19th verse. 
Obedience exhorted. 

TUESDAY. 

Proverbs, Oh. VI. 1st to 23d verse. 
Things Hateful to God. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Proverbs, Ob. VIII. 1st to 21st and 32d to end. 
The Invitation of Wisdom. 



274 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

THURSDAY. 

Ecclesiastes, Ch. I. entire. 

All Things below are Vain. 

FRIDAY. 

Ecclesiastes, Ch. II. 1st to 18th verse. 
Vanity of Human Courses. 



FOURTH "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Ecclesiastes, Ch. m entire. 
Changes in Man's Life. 

TUESDAY. 

Ecclesiastes, Ch. IX. 1st to 7th and llth to end. 
Like Things happen to Good and Bad. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Ecclesiastes, Ch. XI. omitting 5th verse. 
Death to be remembered in Life. 

THURSDAY. 

Ecclesiastes, Ch. XII. entire. 

The Creator to be remembered in Youth. 

FRIDAY. 
Psalm XXXVII. 1st to 23d verse. 

The Happy State of the Godly. 



BIBLE READINGS. 275 

FIFTH "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Psalm XXXVII. 23d verse to end. 
The Happy State of the Godly. 

TUESDAY. 
Psalm XL. entire. 

Benefit of Trusting in God. 

WEDNESDAY. 
Psalm XLVI. entire. 

Confidence of the Church in God. 

THURSDAY. 
Psalm LI. entire. 

David's Prayer for Forgiveness. 

FRIDAY. 
Psalm LXV. entire. 

Infinite Power and Goodness of God 

JUNE. 

FIKST WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Psalm XC. 

A Prayer of Moses. 

TUESDAY. 
Psalm CHI. entire. 

Exhortation to Bless God. 



276 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

WEDNESDAY. 
Daniel, Ch. III. 1st to 19th verse. 

Nebuchadnezzar sets up an Image. 
Shadraeh = Sha'drach. 
Meshach = Me'shak. 
Abed-nego = A-bed'ne-go. 

THURSDAY. 

Daniel, Ch. HI. 19th verse to end. 
Cast into the Fiery Furnace. 

FRIDAY. 

Daniel, Ch. IV. 1st to 19th verse. 
Nebuchadnezzar's Dream. 

Belshazzar = Bel-shaz'zar. 

SECOND "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Daniel, Ch. IV. 19th verse to end. 
Daniel interprets the Dream. 

TUESDAY. 

Daniel, Ch. Y. 1st to 17th verse. 
Belshazzar's Impious Feast. 

WEDNESDAY. 
Daniel, Ch. V. 17th verse to end. 

The Handwriting on the Wall. 

THURSDAY. 
Daniel, Ch. VI. 1st to 18th verse. 

Daniel cast into a Den of Lions. 
Darius = Da-rfus. 



BIBLE HEADINGS. 277 

FRIDAY. 



Daniel, Ch. VI. 18th verse to end. 
Daniel rescued. 



THIRD "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

St. Mark, Ch. XIII. 1st to 14th verse. 
Destruction of Temple foretold. 

TUESDAY. 

St. Mark, Ch. XIII. 24th verse to end. 
Signs of Christ's coming. 

WEDNESDAY, 

St. Mark, Ch. XIV. 1st to 17th verse. 
A Conspiracy against Christ. 

THURSDAY. 

Psalms, CXXIL, CXXIIL, and CXXV. 
Trust in God. 

FRIDAY. 

Proverbs, Ch. XXII., 17th verse to end. 
Moral Excellencies. 



FOURTH WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Daniel, Oh. XII., 17th verse to end. 
Final Deliverance. 



- t--\r \ 



278 SCHOOL DEVICES. 

TUESDAY. 
Psalm CXVI. entire. 

The Psalmist praises God. 

WEDNESDAY. 
Psalm CXVIII. entire. 

Exhortation to praise God for His Mercies. 

THURSDAY. 

Psalms CXX. and CXXI. 
Trust in God. 

FRIDAY. 
Psalms CXXXVII. and CXXXVIII. 

Of the Captivity, and Truth of God's Word. 

JULY. 

FIBST "WEEK. 

MONDAY. 
Proverbs, Ch. XX. 1st to 23d verse. 

Moral Excellencies and their Opposites. 

TUESDAY. 
Proverbs, Ch. XXII. 1st to 17th verse. 

Moral Excellencies and their Opposites. 

WEDNESDAY. 
Proverbs, Ch. XXIV. entire. 

Moral Excellencies and their Opposites. 



INDEX. 



Addition, detecting incorrect answers in, p. 100 
Adding 3, 7, and 11, oral practice in, 97 
Addition, rapid, 99 

" " by sums of ten, 102 

Anagrams, 222 
Apparatus: 

simple piece of, for teaching primary Number, 88 

chart for teaching Fractions, 111 

charts adapted to one's need, 240 

ink-well filler, 241 

wash-bottle for slates, 242 

substitute for compasses, 242 

selecting a thermometer, 242 

cabinet of productions, 243 

tracing-stencils, 243 

dissected pictures and maps, 217 

scrap-box, 178 

slating, 243 

hectograph, 244 

colored crayons, 244 
AKITHMETIC, 85 

begin Number with objects, 85 

teach principles first, 85 [86 

plan for presenting the essential topics of written work in, 

scheme for teaching first three orders of units, 88 



280 INDEX. 

Arithmetic Continued. 

Numeration, 93 

drill with decades, 94 

counting by 2's, 3's, etc., 96 

oral practice in adding and subtracting 3, 7, and 11, 97 

borrowing in subtraction, 97 

drill by diagrams, 81 

rapid addition, 99 

drill in fundamental rules device for busy teachers, 99 

device to detect incorrect answers in Addition, 100 

device for teaching Multiplication, 100 

drill in rapid calculation, 100 

to prevent learning tables by rote, 101 

rapid addition by sums of ten, 102 

value of zero in Multiplication, 102 

rapid slate- work in, 104 

mental drill in Number, 105 

teach Long Division before Short, 106 

facts of value in G. C. D, and L. C. M., 109 

diagrams for teaching Fractions, 109 

chart " " " 111 

multiplication of Fractions, 113 

incorrect reading of certain fractions, 113 

aid in learning to read Decimals, 113 

development lesson in Multiplication of Decimals, 114 

writing Decimals, 116 

teaching tables of Weights and Measures, 117 to 123 

giving steps in solution of problems, 123 

teaching Percentage, 125 

drill for " 128 

examples in words should be given frequently, 128 

aids in Interest, 128-129 

form for Partial Payments, 130 

explanation of Cube Root by blocks, 130 
Beginning school, 144 



INDEX. 281 

BIBLE READINGS, 245 

Blackboards, for lowest grade, 222 

Bulletin-board, 168 

Capitals, device for use of, 19 

Civil Government, topical outline for teaching, 199 

Comparison, idea how to compare, 157 

exercise in, 159 
Composition: 

work for beginners, 13 

easy exercise in, 15 

from pictures, 15 

plan for oral, 15 

reproduction exercises from memory, 20 

plan required in, 21 

subjects that exercise the imagination, 21 

local subjects for, 23 

choice of words, 23 

order of criticism, 24 

rapid correction of, 25 

folding and riling of, 26 

assigning a subject, 26 

character sketches, 26 
Debating club, 169 

exercises, 16 
Decimals, aid in learning to read, 113 

development lesson in multiplication of, 114 
writing, 116 
Decades, drill with, 94 
Decoration, school-room, 170 
Dictation, exercises for second and third years, 66 
Discipline, consultation over case of, 177 

upon, 146 

Division, teach Long before Short, 106 
DRAWING, 224 

from models, 224 

harmful practice, 225 



282 INDEX. 

Drawing Continued. 
from Nature, 225 
a concession, 225 
shading, 226 
designing, 234 
Examinations, graphic, 166 

model for, in geography, 60 
Exercises, Closing, 172 
Fractions, diagrams for teaching, 109 
chart " " 111 
multiplication of, 113 
incorrect reading of certain, 113 
Geographical, location, 48 
outline, 48 
sketching, 49 
story, 49 
game, 49 
guessing, 58 
tracing, 58 
GEOGRAPHY, 42 

order of topics for studying grand divisions, 42 
foundation work in, 43 
longitude and latitude, 43 
how to vary a lesson in, 47 
quiz, 48 
match, 49 

locating productions, 50 
first map, 51 
study of N. America, 51 
how to mould, 53 
normal lesson in, 54 
productien map, 57 
zigzag journeys, 58 
a means of culture, 59 
seat-work in, 220 
Gymnastics, 153 



INDEX. 283 

Hectograph, 244 
HISTORY, 180 

outline for teaching U. S., 180 

value of geography in teaching, 187 

plan of recitation in, 188 

first things in U. 8., 189 

"Yes" and "No " game in, 191 

use of poems in, 191 

supplementary work in, 192 

teaching, 193 

preparing written papers, 195 

dates in, 195 

administration of Presidents, 197 

drawing in, 197 

civil government, 197 

English sovereigns, 198 
Interest, aids in, 128 and 129 
Journeys, zigzag in geography, 58 

Kingdoms, animal, vegetable, and mineral, exercises in, 161 
LANGUAGE, 9 

mind pictures, 9 

preparing pictures for work in, 10 

supplying proper word, 10 

supplying missing pronoun, 11 
verb, 11 

weekly plan of work, 12 

proper form of writing ordinals, 12 

correcting bad English, 12 

word- developing, 14 

debating exercises, 16 

equivalent forms of expression, 18 

papers written from recitation notes, 18 

written reproductions from memory, 20 

illustrative syntax, 20 
Letter-writing, 16 



284 INDEX. 

Letter-writing Continued. 

matter for, 17 

form of business, 18 

letter upon blackboard by class, 23 

drill upon forms of, 36 
Map-drawing frequent, 54 
Map, first, 51 

production, 42 
Multiplication, device in teaching, 100 

value of zero in, 102 
Moulding, how to, 53 
Numeration, 93 
Observation, test of quick, 169 
Ordinals, proper form of writing, 12 
OUTSIDE THE SCHOOL-ROOM, 174 

the parents, 174 

the noon recess, 175 

teach the constellations, 175 

consultation over a case of discipline, 177 

suggestion for the noon intermission, 177 

scrap-box, 178 

scrap-book, 179 
PENMANSHIP, 237 

order of teaching letters, 237 

suggestions, 238 

criticism, 239 

primary writing, 240 
PERSONAL SUGGESTIONS, 132 

preparation of work, 132 

assisting pupils, 133 

teacher's note-book, 134 

ten rules for losing control of a school, 134 
class management, 135 

criticism, 136 

language of the teacher, 137 



INDEX. 285 

PERSONAL SUGGESTIONS Continued. 

points relative to recitations, 137 

creating doubt, 138 

on explanation, 139 

using a new word, 139 

questioning, 139 

expostulation, 141 

don'ts, 141 

Partial Payments, form for, 130 
Percentage, drill for, 128 
teaching, 125 
Pictures, preparation of, 10 

compositions from, 15 
Productions, cabinet of, 243 

locating, 50 
Production -map, 57 
Punishments, 147 
PHYSIOLOGY, 200 

practical, 200 

development lesson in, 201 

to prepare a drop of blood for microscope, 206 

outline of foods, 206 

to show process of osmosis in liquids, 207 

" " " " " " gases, 208 

to illustrate Keflex- action, 207 

"' " congestion, 20& 

to show motions of cilia, 209 

to show circulation, 209 

action of the heart, 209 

structure of the lungs, 210 

to show presence of carbonrc acid, 210 

structure of the heart, 210 

to diagram blind spot in eye, 210 

dissection of a cat or a rabbit, 211 



286 INDEX. 

Questioning, 167 and 139 
Quotations, locating, 41 
READING, 74 

to create sentiment against poor, 74 

suggestions on, 74 

primary reading lesson, 75 

device for teaching a new word, 76 

suggesting for words, 76 

other points on, 79 

how to vary lesson in, 80 

helps in, 81 

drill for expression, 83 

drill upon words often mispronounced, 83 [84 

drill upon words alike in form, but different in meaning, 
Receptions, suggestions about, 171 
Recess, the noon, 175 and 177 
Recitations, dull, 113 and 162 

points relative to, 137 
Reflex-action, to illustrate, 207 
Reviews, necessity of, 165 
SCHOOL-ROOM SUGGESTIONS, 144 

seating pupils, 144 

beginning school, 144 

putting back, 146 

upon discipline, 146 

punishments, 147 

whispering, 147 

tardiness, 148 

rest periods, 151 

ventilation, 152 

lighting, 153 

gymnastics, 153 

general information, 156 

to give idea how to compare, 157 to 159 



INDEX. 287 

Schoolroom Suggestions Continued. 

query-box, 159 

when visitors come, 160 

the three kingdoms, 161 

dull recitations, 162 

a school log-book, 162 

alternating studies, 163 

quiet periods, 163 

division of class, 163 

to get answer from each pupil of a large class, 164 

a school diary, 164 

time given for questioning, 164 

original examples and illustrations, 165 

repetition, 165 

reviews, necessity of, 165 

graphic examinations, 166 

value of an object, 166 

error-box, 167 

questioning, 167 

pupils to keep a note- book, 168 

bulletin-board, 168 

reporting exercise, 168 

test of quick observation, 169 

debating club, 169 
SEAT- WORK, 215 

what is gained by, 215 

copying reading lessons, 215 

in reading, 215 

thinking of words, 216 

building up words, 216 

suggestions for, 216 

dissected pictures and maps, 217 

Number, 217 

illustrated examples, 218 

in geography, : 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 



288 INDEX. 

Seat-work Continued. 

anagrams, 222 

blackboard for lowest grade, 222 

derivatives from primitive words, 222 
Slating, 243 
SPELLING, 62 

accuracy in, 62 

phrase-spelling, 62 

spelling-book made by pupil, 63 

avoid contrasting misspelled words with correct form, 63 

lessons should be written, 64 

test outside the spelling-book, 64 [65 

child best learns to spell a word when he wishes to use it. 

sketch objects for use in, 65 

dictation exercises for second and third years, 66 

division of work in, 69 

two classes of words, 69 

and punctuation by copying, 69 

monthly review, 70 

ways of examining lessons, 71 

special exercise for variety, 71 

occasional drill in, 73 

difficult or perplexing words, 73 
Subtraction, borrowing in, 97 
Surnames, 34 
Syntax, illustrative, 27 
Tables, to prevent learning by rote, 101 
Tardiness, 148 
Time of day, teaching, 76 
Ventilation, 152 

Verb, building up conjugation of, 29 
infinitive mood, 31 
use of shall and will, 31 
lessons on agreement of, 37 
Visitors, 160 



INDEX. 289 

Weights and measures, teaching tables of, 117 to 123 
Whispering, 147 
Word-developing, 14 
Words, building up, 216 

changing, 35 

choice of, 23 and 36 

drivatives from primitive, 222 

of interesting derivation, 33 

substituting, 34 

suggesting for, 76 
Writing, primary, 240 



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ITS CONTENTS. 




CHAP. 

I. 

II. 
III. 
IV. 

V. 

VI. 
VII. 
VIII. 

IX. 
X. 

XI. 



. 

How to Study Mind. 

Some Facts in Mind Growth. 

Development. 

Mind Incentives. 

A few Fundamental Principles 

Settled. 

Temperaments. 
Training of the Senses. 
Attention. 
Perception. 
Abstraction. 
Faculties used in Abstract 

Thinking. 



CHAP. 
XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 
XIX. 

XX. 
XX 



From the Subjective to the 

Conceptive. 
The Will. 

Diseases of the Will. 
Kinds of Memory. 
The Sensibilities. 
Relation of the Sensibilities 

to the Will. 

Training of the Sensibilities. 
Relation of the Sensibilities 

to Morality. 
The Imagination. 
Imagination in its Maturity. 
Education of the Moral Sense. 



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OUTLINE OF CONTENTS. 

I. Education among the GreeksMusic and Gymnastic Theo- 
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V. The Naturalists Rabelais and Montaigne; VI. English 
Humorists and Realists Roger Ascham and John Milton; VII. 
Locke; VIII. Jesuits and Jansenists ; IX. Rousseau; X. Pes- 
talozzi; XI. Kant, Fichte, and Herbart; XII. The English Pub- 
lic* School ; XIII. Froebel ; XIV. The American Common 
School. 

PRESS NOTICES. 

Ed. Courant. " This edition surpasses others in its adaptability to gen- 
eral use." 

Col. School Journal." Can be used as a text-book in the History of 
Education." 

Pa, Ed. News." A volume that can be used as a text-book on the His- 
tory of Education." 

School Education, Minn." Beginning with the Greeks, the author pre- 
sents a brief but clear outline of the leading educational theories down to 
the present time." 

Ed. Review, Can. "A book like this, introducing the teacher to the great 
minds that have worked in the same field, cannot but be a powerful stimulus 
to him in his work." 



SEND ALL OttDftRS TO 

10 K L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 



Calkins Ear and Voice Training by 

MEANS OF ELEMENTARY SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE. By N. A. 
CALKINS, Assistant Superintendent K. Y. City Schools ; 
author of "Primary Object Lessons," "Manual of Object 
Teaching," " Phonic Charts," etc. Cloth. 16mo, about 100 
pp. Price, 50 cents; to teac?ier, 40 cents; by mail, 5 cents extra. 
An idea of the character of this work may be had by the fol- 
lowing extracts from its Preface : 

11 The common existence of abnormal sense perception among school 
children is a serious obstacle in teaching. This condition, is most 

obvious in the defective perceptions 
of sounds and forms. It may be 
seen in the faulty articulations in 
speaking and reading ; in the ina- 
bility to distinguish musical sounds 
readily ; also in the common mis- 
takes made in hearing what is 
said. . . . 

" Careful observation and long 
experience lead to the conclusion 
that the most common defects in 
sound perceptions exist because of 
lack of proper training in childhood 
to develop this power of the mind 
into activity through the sense of 
hearing. It becomes, therefore, a 
s matter of great importance in edu- 
cation, that in the training of chil- 
dren due attention shall be given to 
the development of ready and accu- 
rate perceptions of sounds. 

" How to give this training so as 
to secure the desired results is a 
subject that deserves the careful 
attention of parents and teachers. 
Much depends upon the manner of 
presenting the sounds of our language to pupils, whether or not the 
results shall be the development in sound-perceptions that will train 
the ear and voice to habits of distinctness and accuracy in speaking and 
reading. 

" The methods of teaching given in this book are the results of an 
extended experience under such varied conditions as may be found 
with pupils representing all nationalities, both of native and foreign 
born children. The plans described will enable teachers to lead their 
pupils to acquire ready and distinct perceptions through sense train- 
ing, and cause them to know the sounds of our language in a manner 
that will give practical aid in learning both the spoken and the written 
language. The simplicity and usefulness of the lessons need only to be 
known to be appreciated and use&" 




SUPT. N. A. CALKINS. 



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E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK <& CHICAGO. 11 

Curries Early Education. 

" The Principles and Practice of Early and Infant School 
Education." By JAMES CURRIE, A. M., Prin. Church of 
Scotland Training College, Edinburgh. Author of 
" Common School Education," etc. With an introduction 
by Clarence E. Meleney, A. M. , Supt. Schools, Paterson, 
N. J. Bound in blue cloth, gold, 16mo, 290 pp. Price, 
$1.25 ; to teachers, $1.00 ; by mail, 8 cents extra. 

WHY THIS BOOK IS VALUABLE. 

1. -Pestalozzi gave New England its educational supremacy. 
The Pestalozzian wave struck this country more than forty 

years ago, and produced a mighty shock. It set New Eng- 
land to thinking. Horace Mann became eloquent to help on 
the change, and went up and down Massachusetts, urging hi 
earnest tones the change proposed by the Swiss educator. 
What gave New England its educational supremacy was its 
reception of Pestalozzi's doctrines. Page, Philbrick, Barnard 
were all his disciples. 

2. It is the work of one of the best expounders of Pes- 
talozzi. 

Forty years ago there was an upheaval in education. Pes- 
talozzi's words were acting like yeast upon educators ; thou- 
sands had been to visit his schools at Yverdun, and on their 
return to their own lands had reported the wonderful scenes 
they had witnessed. Rev. James Currie comprehended the 
movement, and sought to introduce it. Grasping the ideas of 
this great teacher, he spread them in Scotland ; but that 
country was not elastic and receptive. Still, Mr. Currie's 
presentation of them wrought a great change, and he is to be 
reckoned as the most powerful exponent of the new ideas in 
Scotland. Hence this book, which contains them, must be 
considered as a treasure by the educator. 

3. This volume is really a Manual of Principles of Teaching. 
It exhibits enough of the principles to make the teacher 

intelligent in her practice. Most manuals give details, but no 
foundation principles. The first part lays a psychological 
basis the only one there is for the teacher ; and this is done 
in a simple and concise way. He declares emphatically that 
teaching cannot be learned empirically. That is, that one can- 
not watch a teacher and see how he does it, and then, imitat- 
ing, claim to be a teacher. The principles must be learned. 

4. It is a Manual of Practice in^ Teaching. 



SEND AUL ORDERS TO 

12 E. L. KELLOGG & CO. , NE W YORK & CHICAGO. 

It discusses the subjects of Number, Object Lessons, Color, 
Form, Geography, Singing, and Reading in a most intelligent 
manner. There is a world of valuable suggestions here for 
the teacher. 

5. It points out the characteristics of Lesson-Giving or 
Good Teaching. 

The language of the teacher, the tone of voice, the question- 
ing needed, the sympathy with the class, the cheerfulness 
needed, the patience, the self-possession, the animation, the 
decorum, the discipline, are all discussed, This latter term is 
denned, and it needs to be, for most teachers use it to cover 
all reasons for doing it is for " discipline" they do every- 
thing. 

6. It discusses the motives to be used in teaching. 

Any one who can throw light here will be listened to ; Mr. 
Currie has done this admirably. He puts (1) Activity, (2) 
Love, (3) Social Relation, as the three main motives. Rewards 
and Punishments, Bribery, etc., are here well treated. The 
author was evidently a man " ahead of his times ;" every- 
where we see the spirit of a humane man ; he is a lover of 
children, a student of childhood, a deep thinker on subjects 
that seem very easy to the pretentious pedagogue. 

7. The book has an admirable introduction, 

By Supt. Meleney, of Paterson, N. J., a disciple of the New 
Education, and one of the most promising of the new style of 
educators that are coming to the front in these days. Taking 
it all together, it is a volume that well deserves wonderful 
popularity. 

Adopted by the Chautauqua Teachers' Reading Union. 

Philadelphia Teacher." It is a volume that every primary teacher 
should study." 

Boston Common School Education." It will prove a great boon to 
thousands of earnest teachers." 

Virginia Educational Journal." Mr. Currie has long been esteemed 
by educators." 

Central School Journal. " Books like this cannot but hasten the 
flay for a better valuation of childhood." 

Horth Carolina School Teacher. "An interesting and timely book." 



FOR READING CIRCLES. 

" Payne's Lectures " is pre-eminently THE book for Reading 
Circles. It has already been adopted by the New York, Ohio, 
Philadelphia, New Jersey, Illinois, Colorado, and Chautauqua 
Circles, besides many in counties and cities. Remember that 
our edition is far superior* to any other published. 



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L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 



Dewey's How to Teach Manners in the 

SCHOOL-ROOM. By Mrs. JULIA M. DEWEY, Principal of the 
Normal School at Lowell, Mass., formerly Supt. of Schools 
at Hoosick Falls, N. Y. Cloth, 16mo, 104 pp. Price, 50 
cents; to teachers, 40 cents; by mail, 5 cents extra. 

Many teachers consider the manners of a pupil of little impor- 
tance so long as he is industrious. But the boys and girls are to 
be fathers and mothers; some of the boys will stand in places of 
importance as professional men, and they will carry the mark of 
ill-breeding all their lives. Manners can be taught in the schopl- 
roonj: they render the school-room more attractive; they banish 
tendencies to misbehavior. In this volume Mrs. Dewey has shown 
how manners can be taught. The method is to present some fact 
of deportment, and then lead the children to discuss its bearings; 
thus they learn why good manners are to be learned and practised. 
The printing and binding are exceedingly neat and attractive." 



OUTLINE OF 

Introduction. 

General Directions. 

Special Directions to Teachers. 

LESSONS ON MANNERS FOR YOUNGEST 

PUPILS. 
Lessons on Manners Second Two 

Years. 
Manners in School First Two Years. 

Second 
Manners at Home First 

u Second 

Manners in Public First 
" Second 



CONTENTS. 

Table Manners First Two Years. 

Second " 
LESSONS ON MANNERS FOR ADVANCED 

PUPILS. 

Manners in School. 
Personal Habits. 
Manners in Public. 
Table Manners. 
Manners in Society. 
Miscellaneous Items. 
Practical Training in Manners. 
Suggestive Stories, Fables, Anec- 
dotes, and Poems. 
Memory Gems. 



Central School Journal. " It furnishes illustrative lessons." 
Texas School Journal. " They (the pupils) will carry the mark of ill- 
breeding all their lives (unless taught otherwise)." 

Pacific Ed. Journal." Principles are enforced by anecdote and conver- 
sation." 

Teacher's Exponent." We believe such a book will be very welcome." 
National Educator. " Common-sense suggestions." 
Ohio Ed. Monthly." Teachers would do well to get it." 
Nebraska Teacher." Many teachers consider manners of little im- 
portance, but some of the boys will stand in places of importance." 
School Educator. "The spirit of the author is commendable." 
School Herald." These lessons are full of suggestions." 
Va. School Journal. "Lessons furnished in a delightful style." 
Miss. Teacher." The best presentation we have seen." 
Ed. Courant. " It is simple, straightforward, and plain." 
Iowa Normal Monthly." Practical and well-arranged lessons on man- 
ners." 

Progressive Educator." Will prove to be most helpful to the teacher 
who desires her pupils to be well-mannered." 



ALL ORDERS 

14 E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 

Fitch's Lectures on Teaching. 

Lectures on Teaching. By J. G. FITCH, M.A., one of Her 
Majesty's Inspectors of ^Schools. England. Cloth, 16mo, 
395 pp. Price, $1.25 ; to teachers, $1.00 ; by mail, postpaid. 

Mr. Fitch takes as his topic the application of principles to 
the art of teaching in schools. Here are no vague and gen- 
eral propositions, but on every page we find the problems of 
the school-room discussed with definiteness of mental grip. 
No one who has read a single lecture by this eminent man 
but will desire to read another. The book is full of sugges- 
tions that lead to increased power. 

1. These lectures are highly prized in England. 

2. There is a valuable preface by Thos. Hunter, President 
of N. Y. City Normal College. 

3. The volume has been at once adopted by several State 
Reading Circles. 

EXTRACT FROM AMERICAN PREFACE. 

" Teachers everywhere among- English-speaking people have hailed 
Mr. Fitch's work as an invaluable aid for almost every kind of instruc- 
tion and school organization. It combines the theoretical and the prac- 
tical; it is based on psychology ; it gives admirable advice on every- 
thing- connected with teaching from the furnishing of a school-room 
to the preparation of questions for examination. Its style is singularly 
clear, vigorous and harmonious." 

Chicago Intelligence. " All of its discussions are based on sound 
psychological principles and give admirable advice." 

Virginia Educational Journal " He tells what he thinks so as to 
be helpful to all who are striving to improve." 

Lynn Evening Item." He gives admirable advice." 

Philadelphia Eecord, " It is not easy to imagine a more useful vol- 
ume." 

Wilmington Every Evening." The teacher will find in it a wealth 
of help and suggestion." 

Brooklyn Journal." His conception of the teacher is a worthy idea 
for all to bear in mind." 

New England Journal of Education : " This is eminently the work oi 
a man of wisdom and experience. He takes a broad and comprehensive 
view of the work of the teacher, and his suggestions on all topics are 
worthy of the most careful consideration." 

Brooklyn Eagle: "An invaluable aid for almost every kind of in- 
struction and school organization. It combines the theoretical and the 
practical ; it is based on psychology ; it gives admirable advice on every- 
thing connected with teaching, from the furnishing of a school-room to 
the preparation of questions for examination." 

Toledo Blade " It is safe to say, no teacher can lay claim to being 
well informed who has not read this admirable work. Its appreciation 
is shown by its adoption by several State Teachers' Beading Circled, as 
a work to bo thoroughly read by its members.' 



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as E. L. KELLOGG & GO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 

Hughes {Mistakes in Teaching. 

BY JAMES J. HUGHES, Inspector of Schools, Toronto, Canada. 
Cloth, 16mo, 115 pp. Price, 50 cents; to teachers, 40 cents; 
by mail, 5 cents extra. 

Thousands of copies of the old 
edition have been sold. The new 
edition is worth double the old; 
the material has been increased, 
restated, and greatly improved. 
Two new and important Chapters 
have been added on "Mistakes in 
Aims," and "Mistakes in Moral 
Training." Mr. Hughes says in hia 
preface: "In issuing a revised edi- 
tion of this book, it seems fitting to 
acknowledge gratefully the hearty 
appreciation that has been accorded 
it by American teachers. Realiz- 
ing as I do that its very large sale 
, . indicates that it has been of service 
*K to many of my fellow-teachers, I 
\ have recognized the duty of enlarg- 
ing and revising it so as to make it 
still more helpful in preventing 
JAMES L. HUGHES, Inspector of the common mistakes in teaching 
Schools, Toronto, Canada. and tra i n i n g. 

This is one of the six books recommended by the N". Y. State 
Department to teachers preparing for examination for State cer* 
tificates. 

CAUTION. 

Our new AUTHORIZED COPYRIGHT EDITION, entirely rewritten by 
the author, is the only one to ~buy. It is beautifully printed and 
handsomely bound. Get no other. 

CONTENTS OF OUR NEW EDITIONS. 

CHAP. I. 7 Mistakes in Aim. 
CHAP. II. 21 Mistakes in School Management. 
CHAP. III. 24 Mistakes in Discipline. 
CHAP. IV. 27 Mistakes in Method. 
CHAP. V. 13 Mistakes in Moral Training. 
' CJiaps. I. and V. are entirely new. 




&END ALL ORDERS $6 

20 E. L, KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 

Hugbes Securing and Retaining Atten- 

TION. By JAMES L. HUGHES, Inspector Schools, Toronto, 
Canada, author of "Mistakes in Teaching." Cloth, 116 pp. 
Price, 50 cents; to teachers, 40 cents; by mail, 5 cents extra. 

This valuable little book has already become widely known to 
American teachers. Our new edition has been almost entirely 
re-written, and several new important chapters added. It is the 
only AUTHOKIZED COPYRIGHT EDITION. Caution.Buy no other. 

WHAT IT CONTAINS. 

I. General Principles; II. Kind* of Attention; III. Characteristics of Good 
Attention ; IV. Conditions of Attention ; V. Essential Characteristics of the 
Teacher in Securing and Retaining Attention; VI. How to Control a Class; 
VII. Methods of Stimulating and Controlling a Desire for Knowledge; VIII. 
How to Gratify and Develop the Desire for Mental Activity ; IX. Distracting 
Attention; X. Training the Power of Attention; XI. General Suggestions 
regarding Attention. 

TESTIMONIALS. 

S. P. Bobbins, Pres. McGill Normal School, Montreal, Can., writes to Mr. 
Hughes: "It is quite superfluous for me to say that your little books are 
admirable. I was yesterday authorized to put the ' Attention ' on the list 
of books to be used in the Normal School next year. Crisp and attractive 
in style, and mighty by reason of its good, sound common-sense, it is a 
book that every teacher should know." 

Popular Educator (Boston):" Mr. Hughes has embodied the best think- 
ing of Iris life in these pages." 

Central School Journal (la.). " Though published four or five years 
since, this book has steadily advanced in popularity." 

Educational Courant (Ky.). "It is intensely practical. There isn't a 
mystical, muddy expression in the book." 

Educational Times (England)." On an important subject, and admir- 
ably executed." 

School Guardian (England)." We unhesitatingly recommend it." 
New England Journal of Education." The book is a guide and a 
manual of special value." 

New York School Journal. " Every teacher would derive benefit from 
reading this volume." 

Chicago Educational "Weekly. " The teacher who aims at best suc- 
cess should study it." 

Phil. Teacher." Many who have spent months in the school-room would 
be benefited by it." 

Maryland School Journal.' 1 Always clear, never tedious." 

Va. Ed. Journal. " Excellent hints as to securing attention." 

Ohio Educational Monthly." We advise readers to send for a copy." 

Pacific Home and School Journal. " An excellent little manual." 

Prest. James H. Hoose, State Normal School. Cortland, N. Y., says: 

" The book must prove of great benefit to the profession." 
Supt. A. W. Edson, Jersey City, N. J.. says:" A good treatise has long 

been needed, and Mr. Hughes has supplied the want." 



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E. L. KELLOGG & CO.. NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 21 

Johnsons Education by "Doing. 

Education by Doing : A Book of Educative Occupations for 
Children in School. By ANNA JOHNSON, teacher to the 
Children's Aid Schools of New York City. With a prefatory 
note by Edward E. Shaw, of the High School of Yonkers, 
'.; N. Y. Handsome red cloth, gilt stamp. Price, 75 cents ; 
to teachers, 60 cents ; by mail, 5 cents extra. 

Thousands of teachers are asking the question: "How can 1 
keep my pupils profitably occupied?" This book answers 
the question. Theories are omitted. Every line is full of in- 
struction. 

1. Arithmetic is taught with blocks, beads, toy-money, etp. 

2. The tables are taught by clock dials, weights, etc. 

3. Form is taught by blocks. 

4. Lines with sticks. 

5. Language with pictures. 

6. Occupations are given. 

7. Everything is plain and practical. 

EXTRACT FROM PREFATORY NOTE. 

"In observing the results achieved by the Kindergarten, educators have 
felt that Frcebel's great discovery of education by occupations must have 
something for the public schools that a further application of the *piv< 
ting of experience and action in the place of boots and abstract thinking, 
could be made beyond the fifth or sixth year of the child's life. Thj& 
book is an outgrowth of this idea, conceived in the spirit of the New 
Education.* 

" It will be widely welcomed, we believe, as it gives concrete methods 
of work the very aids primary teachers are in search of. There has beeu 
a wide discussion of the subject of education, and there exists no littlu 
confusion in the mind of many a teacher as to how he should impro^ 
Upon methods that have been condemned." 

Snpt. J. W. Skinner, Children's Aid Schools, says : It is highly aypio 

ciated by our teachers. It supplies a want felt by all." 
Toledo Blade. "The need of this book has been felt by teachers." 
School Education- "Contains a great many fruitful suggestions." 
Christian Advance- " The method is certainly philosophical." 
Va. Ed. Journal.-" The book is an outgrowth of Froebel's idea." 
Philadelphia Teacher. " The book is full of practical information." 
Iowa Teacher. "Kellogg's books are all good, but this is the beet foi 

teachers." 

The Educationist" We regard it as very valuable." 
School Bulletin." We think well of this book." 
Chicago Intelligence. " Will be found a very serviceable book." 



r SEND ALL ORDERS TO 

22 E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 

Kellogg s School {Management; 

" A Practical Guide for the Teacher in the School-Room." 
By AMOS M. KELLOGG, A.M. Sixth edition. Revised and 
enlarged. Cloth, 128 pp. Price, 75 cents ; to teachers, 60 
cents ; by mail, 5 cents extra. 

This book takes up the most difficult of all school work, 
viz. : the Government of a school, and is filled with original 
and practical ideas on the subject. It is invaluable to the 
teacher who desires to make his school a "well-governed" 
school. 

1. It suggests methods of awakening an interest in the 
studies, and in school work. "The problem for the teacher," 
says Joseph Payne, " is to get the pupil to study." If he can do 
this he will be educated. 

2. It suggests methods of making the school attractive. 
Ninety-nine hundredths of the teachers think young people 
should come to school anyhow ; the wise ones know that a 
pupil who wants to come to school will do something when 
he gets there, and so make the school attractive. 

3. Above all it shows that the pupils will be self -governed 
when well governed. It shows how to develop the process of 
self-government. 

4. It shows how regular attention and courteous behaviour 
may be secured, 

5. It has an admirable preface by that remarkable man and 
teacher, Dr. Thomas Hunter, Pres. N. Y. City Normal College. 

Home and School." Is just the book for every teacher who wishes 
to be a better teacher." 

Educational Journal. " It contains many valuable hints." 
Boston Journal of Education. "It is the most humane, instructive, 
original educational work we have read in many a day." 

Wis. Journal of Education." Commends itself at once by the num- 
ber of ingenious devices for securing order, industry, and interest. 

Iowa Central School Journal." Teachers will find it a helpful and 
suggestive book." 

Canada Educational Monthly." Valuable advice and useful sugges- 
tions." 

Normal Teacher." The author believes the way to manage is to civ- 
ilize, cultivate, and refine." 

School Moderator." Contains a large amount of valuable reading ; 
school government is admirably presented." 

Progressive Teacher. " Should occupy an honored place in every 
teacher's library." 

Ed. Courant. "It will help the teacher greatly/ 

Va. Ed. Journal." The author draw* from a larg-e experience. 1 ' 



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'INDUSTRIAL- 



Loves Industrial Education. 

Industrial Education ; a guide to Manual Training. ~ By 

SAMUEL G. LOVE, principal of the Jamestown, (N, Y.) 

public schools. Cloth, 12mo, 330 pp. with 40 full-page 

plates containing nearly 400 figures. Price, $1.50; to 

teachers, $1.20 ; by mail, 12 cents extra. 

1. Industrial Education not understood. Probably the only 

man who has wrought out the problem in a practical way is 

Samuel G, Love, the superin- 
tendent of the Jamestown (N. 
Y.) schools. Mr. Love has now 
about 2,400 children in the 
primary, advanced, and high 
schools under his charge ; he 
is assisted by fifty teachers, so 
that an admirable opportunity 
was offered. In 1874 (about 
fourteen years ago) Mr. Love 
began his experiment ; gradu- 
alty he introduced one occu- 
pation, and then another, uatil 
at last nearly all the pupils are 
following some form of educat- 
ing work. 

2. Why it is demanded. The 
reasons for introducing it are 
clearly stated by Mr. Love. It 
was done because the educa* 
tion of the books left the pu- 
pils unfitted to meet the prac- 
tical problems the world asks them to solve. The world does 
not have a field ready for the student in book-lore. The state- 
ments of Mr. Love should be carefully read. 

3. It is an educational book. Any one can give some 
formal work to girls and boys. "What has been needed has 
been some one who could find out what is suited to the little 
child who is in the " First Keader," to the one who is in the 
"Second Reader," and so on. It must be remembered the 
effort is not to make carpenters, and type-setters, and dress- 
makers of boys and girls, but to educate them by these occupa- 
tions better than withoy,f them. 




'LOVE* 



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E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 25 

Payne's Lectures on the Science and 

ART OF EDUCATION. Reading Circle Edition. By JOSEPH 
PAYNE, the first Professor of the Science and Art of Edu- 
cation in the College of Preceptors, London, England. 
With portrait. 16mo, 350 pp., English cloth, with gold 
back stamp. Price, $1.00 ; to teachers, 80 cents ; by mail, 
7 cents extra. Elegant new edition from new plates. 

Teachers who are seeking ta 
know the principles of education 
will find them clearly set forth in 
this volume. It must be remem- 
bered that principles are the basis 
upon which all methods of teach- 
ing must be founded. So valu- 
able is this book that if a teacher 
were to decide to own but three 
works on education, this would 
be one of them. This edition 
contains all of Mr. Payne's writ- 
ings that are in any other Ameri- 
can abridged edition, and is the 
only one with his portrait. It ia 
far superior to any other edition 
published. 
JOSEPH PAYNE. 

WHY THIS EDITION is THE BEST 

(1.) The side-titles. These give the contents of the page. 
(2.) The analysis of each lecture, with reference to the educa- 
tional points in it. (3.) The general analysis pointing out the 
three great principles found at the beginning. (4.) The index, 
where, under such heads as Teaching, Education, The Child, 
the important utterances of Mr. Payne are set forth. (5.) 
Its handy shape, large type, fine paper, and press-work and 
tasteful binding. All of these features make this a most val- 
uable book. To obtain all these features in one edition, it 
was found necessary to get out this new edition. 

Ohio Educational Monthly. "It does not deal with shadowy nieories; 
it is intensely practical." 

Philadelphia Educational News," Ought to be in library of every 
progressive teacher." 

Educational Courant. " To know how to teach, more IF needed than 
a knowledge of the branches taught. This is especially valuable." 

Pennsylvania Journal of Education. "Will be of practical value tg 
Normal Schools and Institute 




ALL 



Jfc L. KELLOGG <& CO., NEW YORK <& CHICAGO, 27 



Parker's Talks on Teaching. 

Notes of "Talks on Teaching" given by COL. FRANCIS W, 
PARKER (formerly Superintendent of schools of Quincy s 
Mass.), before the Martha's Vineyard Institute, Summer 
of 1882. Eeported by LELIA E. PATRIDGE. Square 16mo, 
5x6 1-2 niches, 192 pp. , laid paper, English cloth. Price, 
$1.25 ; to teachers, $1.00 ; by mail, 9 cents extra. 
The methods of teaching employed in the schools of Quincy, 
Mass. , were seen to be the methods of nature. As they were 
copied and explained, they awoke a great desire on the part 
of those who could not visit the schools to know the underly- 
ing principles. In other words, Colonel Parker was asked to 
explain why he had his teachers teach thus. In the summer 
of 1882, in response to requests, Colonel Parker gave a course 
of lectures before the Martha's Vineyard Institute, and these 
were reported by Miss Patridge, and published in this book. 

The book became famous ; 
more copies were sold of it in 
the same time than of any 
other educational book what- 
ever. The daily papers, which 
usually pass by such books 
with a mere mention, devoted 
columns to reviews of it. 

The following points will 
show why the teacher will 
want this book. 

1. It explains the " New 
Methods." There is a wide 
gulf between the new and the 
old education. Even school 
boards understand this. 

2. It gives the underlying 
principles of education. For it 

must be remembered that Col. Parker is not expounding Ms 
methods, but the methods of nature. 

3. It gives the ideas of a man who is evidently an " educa- 
tional genius," a man born to understand and expound educa- 
tion. We have few such ; they are worth everything to the 
human race. 

4. It gives a biography of Col. Parker. This will help the 
teacher of education to comprehend the man and his motives. 

5. It has been adopted by nearly every State Reading Circle, 




SEND AT.T. ORDBRS TO 

E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK <Sb CHICAGO. 29 

The Practical Teacher. 

Writings of FRANCIS W. PARKER, Principal of Cook Co. 
Normal School, HI., and other educators, among which is 
Joseph Payne's Visit to German Schools, etc. 188 large 
8vo pages, 7^x10^ inches. Cloth. Price, $1.50; to 
teachers, $1.20; by mail, 14 cents extra. New edition in 
paper cover. Price, 75 cents ; to teachers, 60 cents ; by 
mail, 8 cents extra. 

These articles contain many things that the readers of the 
" Talks on Teaching" desired light upon. The space occupied 
enabled Col. Parker to state himself at the length needed for 
clearness. There is really here, from his pen (taking out the 
writings of others) a volume of 830 pages, each page about the 
size of those in " Talks on Teaching." 

1. The writings in this volume are mainly those of Col. F. 
W. Parker, Principal of the Cook County Normal School. 

2. Like the " Talks on Teaching " so famous, they deal with 
the principles and practice of teaching. 

3. Those who own the " Talks " will want the further ideas 
from Col. Parker. 

4. There are many things in this volume written in reply to 
inquiries suggested in " Talks." 

5. There is here really 750 pages of the size of those in 
" Talks." " Talks " sells for $1.00. This for $1.20 and 14 cents 
for postage. 

6. Minute suggestions are made pertaining to Reading, 
Questions, Geography, Numbers, History, Psychology, Peda- 
gogics, Clay Modeling, Form, Color, etc. 

7. Joseph Payne's visit to the German schools is given in 
full ; everything from his pen is valuable. 

8. The whole book has the breeze that is blowing from the 
New Education ideas ; it is filled with Col. Parker's spirit. 

PARTIAL LIST OF CONTENTS- 

Beginnings. Beading laws and principles ; Ruling Slates : Number 
and Arithmetic; Geography; Moulding; History; Psychology; Peda- 
gogics; Examinations; Elocution; Questioning on Pictures; on Flow- 
ers ; on Leaves ; Rules in Language : Answers to questions respecting 
the Spelling-Book ; List of Children's Books on History ; The Child's 
Voice; Ideas before Words; Description of Pictures; Teaching of 1: 
of 2; of 3 ;of 4; etc.; Form and Color; Breathing Exercises; Paper 
Folding ; V erbatim report of lessons given in Cook Co. Normal School. 
Busy Work ; Answers to Questions in Arithmetic, etc. ; Why teachers 
drag out a monotonous existence ; Teaching of language to children ; 
Supplementary Reading list of books; Structural Geography; Letters 
from Germany ; Hand and Eye Training ; Clay Modeling ; List of Edu- 
cational Works ; Joseph Payne^visit to German Schools, etc., etc. 



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Tatridges " Quincy {Methods " 

The " Quincy Methods," illustrated ; Pen photographs from 
the Quincy schools. By LELIA E. PATRIDGE. Illustrated 
with a number of engravings, and two colored plates. 
Blue cloth, gilt, 12rno, 686 pp. Price, $1.75 ; to teachers, 
$1.40 ; by mail, 13 cents extra. 

When the schools of Quincy, Mass., became so famous 
under the superintendence of Col. Francis W. Parker, thou- 
sands of teachers visited them. Quincy became a sort of 
" educational Mecca," to the disgust of the routinists, whose 
schools were passed by. Those who went to study the 
methods pursued there were called on to tell what they had 
seen. Miss Patridge was one of those who visited the schools 
of Quincy ; in the Pennsylvania Institutes (many of which 
she conducted), she found the teachers were never tired of 
being told how things were done in Quincy. She revisited 
the schools several times, and wrote down what she saw ; then 
the book was made. 

1. This book presents the actual practice in the schools of 
Quincy. It is composed of " pen photographs." 

2. It gives abundant reasons for the great stir produced by 
the two words " Quincy Methods." There are reasons for the 
discussion that has been going on among the teachers of late 
years. 

3. It gives an insight to principles underlying real educa- 
tion as distinguished from book learning. 

4. It shows the teacher not only what to do, but gives the 
way in which to do it. 

5. It impresses one with the spirit of the Quincy schools. 

6. It shows the teacher how to create an atmosphere of hap 
piness, of busy work, and of progress. 

7. It shows the teacher how not to waste her tune in worry 
ing over disorder. 

8. It tells how to treat pupils with courtesy, and get cour- 
tesy back again. 

9. It presents four years of work, considering Number, 
Color, Direction, Dimension, Botany, Minerals, Form, Lan- 
guage, Writing, Pictures, Modelling, Drawing, Singing, 
Geography, Zoology, etc., etc. 

10. There are 686 pages; a large book devoted to the realities 
of school life, in realistic descriptive language. It is plain, 
real, not abstruse and uninteresting. 

11. It gives an insight into real education, the education 
urged by Pestalozzi, Frcebeji Mani^JPage, Parker, etc. 



ALL ORDERS tfd 
E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 

First Three Years of Childhood. 

AN EXHAUSTIVE STUDY OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CHILDREN. By 
BERNARD PEREZ. Edited and translated by ALICE M. CHRISTIE, 
translator of " Child and Child Nature," with an introduction by 
JAMES SULLY, M.A., author of "Outlines of Psychology," etc. 
12mo, cloth, 324 pp. Price, 81.50 ; to teachers, $1.20 ; by mail, 10 
cents extra. 

This is a comprehensive treatise on the psychology of childhood, and 
is a practical study of the human mind, not full formed and equipped 
with knowledge, but as nearly as possible, ab origine before habit, 
environment, and education have asserted their sway and made their 
permanent modifications. The writer looks into all the phases of child 
activity. He treats exhaustively, and in bright Gallic style, of sensa- 
tions, instincts, sentiments, intellectual tendencies, the will, the facul- 
ties of aesthetic and moral senses of young children. He shows how 
ideas of truth and falsehood arise in little minds, how natural is imita- 
tion and how deep is credulity. He illustrates the development of im- 
agination and the elaboration of new concepts through judgment, 
abstraction, reasoning, and other mental methods. It Is a book that 
has been long wanted by all who are engaged in teaching, and especially 
by all who have to do with the education and training of children. 

This edition has a new index of special value, and the book is care- 
fully printed and elegantly and durably bound. Be sure to get our 
standard edition. 

OUTLINE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAP. 

IX. Association of Psvchical States 

- Association imagination. 
X. Elaboration of Ideas Judg- 
ment Abstraction Com- 
parison Generalization 
Reasoning Errors and Allu- 
sionsErrors and Allusions 
Owing to Moral Causes. 
XI. Expression and Language. 
XII. ^Esthetic Senses Musical 
Sense Sense of Material 
Beauty Constructive In- 
stinctDramatic Instinct. 
XLU. Personalty Reflection Moral 



CHAP. 

I. Faculties of Infant before Birth 
First Impression of New- 
born ChUd. 

n. Motor Activity at the Begin- 
ning of Life at Six Months 
at Fifteen Months. 
in. Instinctive and Emotional Sen- 
sations First Perceptions. 
IV. General and Special Instincts. 
V. The Sentiments. 
VI. Intellectual Tendencies Ver- 
acity Imitation Credulity. 
VH. The Will. 
VIII. Faculties of Intellectual Acqui- 



sition and Retention Atten- Sense, 

tion Memory. 

Col. Francis W. Parker, Principal Cook County Normal and Training 
School, Chicago, says: "I am glad to see that you have published Perez's 
wonderful work upon childhood. I shall do all I can to get everybody to read 
it. It is a grand work." 

John Bascom, Pres. Univ. of Wisconsin, says:" A work of marked 
interest." 

Cr. Stanley Hall, Professor of Psychology and Pedagogy, Johns Hopkins 
Univ., says: "I esteem the work a very valuable one for primary and kin- 
dergarten teachers, and for all interested in the psychology of childhood." 

And many other strong commendations. 



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E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YOllK & CHICAGO. 33 



Reception Day. 6 

A collection of fresh and original dialogues, recitations, ^decla- 
mations, and short pieces for practical use in Public and 
Private Schools. Bound in handsome new paper cover, 160 
pages each, printed on laid paper. Price, 30 cents each; U 
teachers, 24 cents; by mail, 3 cents extra. 
The exercises in these books bear upon education; have a rela< 
tion to the school-room. 

1. The dialogues, recitations, and declamations gathered in 

this volume being fresh, short, 
I and easy^o be comprehended, are 
.| well fitted for the average scholars 
Si of our schools. 

2. They have mainly been used 
by teachers for actual schooj 
exercises. 

3. They cover a different ground 
from the speeches of Demosthenes 

| and Cicero which are unfitted 
for boys of twelve to sixteen 
years of age. 

4. They have some practical in- 
terest for those who use them. 

5. There is not a vicious sen- 
tence uttered. In some dialogue 
books profanity is found, or dis- 
obedience to parents encouraged, 
or lying laughed at. Let teachers 
look out for this. 

6. There is something for the 
youngest pupils. 




NEW COVER. 



7. "Memorial -Day Exercises" for Bryant, Garfield, Lincoln, 
etc., will be found. 

8. Several Tree Planting exercises are included. 

9. The exercises have relation to the school-room, and bear 
upon education. 

10. An important point is the freshness of these pieces. Most 
of them were written expressly for this collection, and can be 
found nowhere else. 

Boston Journal of Education. " It is of practical value." 
Detroit Free Press," Suitable for public and private schools." 
Western Ed, Journal. " A series of very good selections." 



34: 



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E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 



WHAT EACH NUMBER CONTAINS. 



No. 1 

Is a specially fine number. One dia- 
logue in it, called " Work Conquers," 
for 11 girls and 6 boys, has been given 
hundreds of times, and is alone worth 
the price of the book. Then there 
are 21 other dialogues. 
29 Recitations. 
14 Declamations. 
17 Pieces for the Primary Class. 

No. 2, Contains 

29 Recitations. 
12 Declamations. 

17 Dialogues. 

24 Pieces for the Primary Class. 

And for Class Exercise as follows: 

The Bird's Party. 

Indian Names. 

Valedictory. 

Washington's Birthday. 

Garfield Memorial Day. 

Grant 

Whittier " 

Sigourney " 

No. 3 Contains 

Fewer of the longer pieces and more 
of the shorter, as follows : 

18 Declamations. 

21 Recitations. 

22 Dialogues. 

24 Pieces for the Primary Class. 
A Christmas Exercise. 
Opening Piece, and 
An Historical Celebration. 



No. 4 Contains 

Campbell Memorial Day. 
Longfellow " " 
Michael Angelo " 
Shakespeare " 
Washington " " 
Christmas Exercise. 
Arbor Day 
New Planting " 
Thanksgiving " 
Value of Knowledge Exercise. 
Also 8 other Dialogues. 
21 Recitations. 

23 Declamations. 

No. 5 Contains 

Browning Memorial Day. 
Autumn Exercise. 
Bryant Memorial Day. 
New Planting Exercise. 
Christmas Exercise. 
A Concert Exercise. 

24 Other Dialogues. 
16 Declamations, and 
36 Recitations. 

No. 6 Contains 
Spring; a flower exercise for very 

young pupils. 
Emerson Memorial Day. 
New Year's Day Exercise. 
Holmes' Memorial Day. 
Fourth of July Exercise. 
Shakespeare Memorial Day. 
Washington's Birthday Exercise. 
Also 6 other Dialogues. 
6 Declamations. 
41 Recitations. 

15 Recitations for the Primary Class. 
And 4 Songs. 



Our RECEPTION DAY Series is not sold largely by booksellers, 
who, if they do not keep it, try to have you buy something else 
similar, but not so good. Therefore send direct to the publishers, 
by mail, the price as above, in stamps or postal notes, and your 
order will be filled at once. Discount for quantities. 



SPECIAL OFFER. 

If ordered at one time, we will send postpaid the entire 
6 Nos. for $1.40. Note the reduction. 



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f. L. KELLOGG <fc CO., JVJS7TF YORK & CHICAGO. 35 



Seeteys Grube s Method of Teaching 

ARITHMETIC. Explained and illustrated. Also the im- 
provements on the method made by the followers of 
Grube in Germany. By LEVI SEELEY, Ph.D. Cloth, 
176 pp. Price, $1.00 ; to teachers 80 cents ; by mail, 
7 cents extra. 

1. IT is A PHILOSOPHICAL 
WORK. This book has a sound 
philosophical basis. The child 
does not (as most teachers seem 
to think) learn addition, then 
subtraction, then multiplica- 
tion, then division; he learns 
these processes together. Grube 
saw this, and founded his sys- 
tem on this fact. 

2. IT FOLLOWS NATURE'S 
PLAN. Grube proceeds to de- 
velop (so to speak) the method 
by which the child actually be- 
comes (if he ever does) ac- 
quainted with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. 
This is not done, as some sup- 
pose, by writing them on a 
slate. Nature has her method ; 
she begins with THINGS; after 

handling two things in certain ways, the idea of two is ob- 
tained, and so ot other numbers. The chief value of this 
book then consists in showing what may be termed the way 
nature teaches the child number. 

3. IT is VALUABLE TO PRIMARY TEACHERS. It begins and 
shows how the child can be tanght 1, then 2, then 3, &c. 
Hence it is a work especially valuable for the primary teacher. 
jt gives much space to showing how the numbers up to 10 are 
taught; for if this be correctly done, the pupil will almost 
teach himself the rest. 

4. IT CAN BE USED IN ADVANCED GRADES. It discusses 
methods of teaching fractions, percentage, etc., so that it is a 
work valuable for all classes of teachers. 

5 IT GUIDES THE TEACHER'S WORK. It shows, for exam- 
ple, what the teacher can appropriately do the first year, what 
the second, the third, and the fourth. More than this, it sug- 
gests work for the teacher she would otherwise omit. 

Taking it altogether, it is the best work on teaching num* 
tcr ever published. It is very hanclflomely printed and bound* 




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E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK AND CHICAGO. 37 

Sbaw's Rational Question "Book. 

" THE NATIONAL QUESTION BOOK." A graded course of 
study for those preparing to teach. By EDWARD R. SHAW, 
Principal of the High School, Yonkers, N. Y., author of 
" School Devices,'' etc Bound in durable English buck- 
ram cloth, with beautiful side-stamp. 12mo, 400 pp. 
Price, $1.85; net to teachers, postpaid. 
A new edition of this popular book is now ready, containing 
the following 

NEW FEATURES: 

BEADING. An entirely new chapter with answers. 
ALCOHOL and its effects on the body. An entirely new 
chapter with answers. 

THE PROFESSIONAL GRADE has been entkely re- 
written and now contains answers to every question. 

This work contains 6,500 Questions and Answers on 24 
Different Brandies of Study. 

ITS DISTINGUISHING FEATURES. 

1. It aims to make the teacher a BETTER TEACHER. 

11 How to Make Teaching a Profession" has challenged the 
attention of the wisest teacher. It is plain that to accomplish 
this the teacher must pass from the stage of a knowledge of 
the rudiments, to the stage of somewhat extensive acquire- 
ment. There are steps in this movement ; if a teacher will 
take the first and see what the next is, he will probably go on 
to the next, and so on. One of the reasons why there has 
been no movement forward by those who have made this first 
step, is that there was nothing marked out as a second step. 

2. This book will show the teacher how to go forward. 

In the preface the course of study usually pursued in our 
best normal schools is given. This proposes four grades; 
third, second, first, and professional. Then, questions are 
given appropriate for each of these grades. Answers follow 
each section. A teacher will use the book somewhat as 
follows : -If he is in the third grade he will put the questions 
found in this book concerning numbers, geography, history, 
grammar, orthography, and theory and practice of teaching 
to himself and get out the answer. Having done this he will 
go on to the other grades in a similar manner. In this way 
he will know as to his fitness to pass an examination for 



SEND ALL ORDEBS TO 

38 E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK <& CHICAGO. 

these grades. The selection of questions is a good one. 

3. It proposes questions concerning teaching itself. 

The need of studying the Art of Teaching is becoming more 
and more apparent. There are questions that will prove very 
suggestive and valuable on the Theory and Practice of Educa- 
tion. 

4. It is a general review of the common school and higher 
studies. 

Each department of questions is followed by department of 
answers on same subject, each question being numbered, and 
answer having corresponding number. 

Arithmetic, 3d grade. English Literature, 1st grade. 

Geography, 2d and 3d grade. Natural Philosophy, " 

U. S. History, 2d and 3d grade. Algebra, professional grade. 

Grammar, 1st, 2d, and 3d grade. General History, profess, grade. 

Orthography and Orthoepy,3d grade. Geometry, 

Theory and Practice of Teaching, Latin, " " 

1st, 2d, and 3d grade. Zoology, 

Rhetoric and Composition, 2d grade. Astronomy, 

Physiology, 1st and 2d grade. Botany, 

Bookkeeping, 1st and 2d grade. Physics, 

Civil Government, 1st and 2d grade. Chemistry, 

Physical Geography, 1st grade. Geology, 

5. It is carefully graded into grades corresponding to those 
into which teachers are usually classed. 

It is important for a teacher to know what are appropriate 
questions to ask a third grade teacher, for example. Exam- 
iners of teachers, too, need to know what are appropriate 
questions. In fact, to put the examination of the teacher into 
a proper system is most important. 

6. Again, this book" broadens the field, and will advance 
education. The second grade teacher, for example, is exam- 
hied in rhetoric and composition, physiology, book-keeping, 
and civil government, subjects usually omitted. The teacher 
who follows this book faithfully will become as near as possi- 
ble a normal school graduate. It is really a contribution to 
pedagogic progress. It points out to the teacher a road to 
professional fitness. 

7. It is a useful reference work for every teacher and priv- 
ate library. 

Every teacher needs a book to turn to for questions, for 
example, a history class. Time is precious ; he gives a pupil 
the book saying, " Write five of those questions on the black- 
board ; the class may brin in answers to-morrow." A book, 



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E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 45 

Teachers Manuals Series. 

Each is printed in large, clear type, on good paper. Paper 

cover, price 15 cents; to teach- 
ers, 12 cents; by mail, 1 cent 
extra. 

There is a need of small vol- 
umes "Educational tracts," that 
teachers can carry easily and study 
as they have opportunity. The 
following numbers have been al- 
ready published. 

It should be noted that while 
our editions of such of these little 
books that are not written specially 
for this series are as low in price 
as any other, the side-heads, top- 
ics, and analyses inserted by the 
editor, as well as the excellent 
paper and printing, make them 
far superior in every way to any 
other edition. 

J. G. FITCH, Inspector of the We would suggest that city mper- 
Training Colleges of England. inUudentsor conductors of institutes 

wpply each of their teachers with copies of tliese little books. Special 

rates for quantities. 

No. i. Fitch's Art of Questioning. 

By J. G. FITCH, M.A., author of " Lectures on Teaching." 38 pp. 
Already widely known as the most useful and practical essay on this most 
important part of the teachers' lesson-hearing. 

No. 2. Pitch's Art of Securing Attention. 

By J. G. FITCH, M. A. 39 pp. 

Of no less value than the author's " Art of Questioning." 

No. 3. Sidgwick's On Stimulus in School. 

By ARTHUR SIDGWICK, M.A. 43 pp. 

" How can that dull, lazy scholar be pressed on to work up his lessons 
with a will?" This bright essay will tell how it can be done. 

No. 4. Yonge's Practical Work in School. 

By CHARLOTTE M. YONGE, author of " Heir of Redclyffe," 35 pp. 
All who have read Miss Yonge's books will be glad to read of her views 
on School Work. 

No. 5. Fitch's Improvement in the Art of Teaching. 

By f. G. FITCH, M.A. 25 pp. 

This thoughtful, earnest essay will bring courage and help to many a 
teacher who is struggling to do better work. It includes a course of study 
for Teachers' Training Classes. 




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46 E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 
No. 6. Gladstone's Object Teaching. 

By J. H. GLADSTONE, of the London (Eng.) School Board. 25 pp. 
A short manual full of practical suggestions on Object Teaching. 

No. 7. Huntington's Unconscious Tuition. 

Bishop Huntington has placed all teachers under profound obligations to 
him by writing this work. The earnest teacher has felt its earnest spirit, 
due to its interesting discussion of the foundation principles of education. 
It is wonderfully suggestive. 

No. 8. Hughes' How to Keep Order. 

By JAMES L. HUGHES, author of " Mistakes in Teaching." 
Mr. Hughes is one of the few men who know what to say to help a young 
teacher. Thousands are to-day asking, " How shall we keep order ?" 
Thousands are saying, " I can teach well enough, but I cannot keep order." 
To such we recommend this little book. 

No. 9. Qiiick's How to Train tie Memory. 

By Rev. R. H. QUICK, author of " Educational Reformers." 
This book comes from school-room experience, and is not a matter of 
theory. Much attention has been lately paid to increasing the power of 
memory. The teacher must make it part of his business to store the 
memory, hence he must know how to do it properly and according to the 
laws of the mind. 

No. 10. Hoffman's Kindergarten Gifts. 

By HEINRICH HOFFMAN, a pupil of Froebel. 

The author sets forth very clearly the best methods of using them for 
training the child's senses and power of observation. 

No. ii. "Butler's Argument for Manual Training. 

By NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER, Pres. of N. Y. College for Training of 
Teachers. 
A clear statement of the foundation principles of Industrial Education. 

No. 12. Groff's School Hygiene. 

By Pres. G. G. GROFF, of Bucknell University, Pa. 

We wish that every teacher could read carefully and put in practice the 
clearly-stated principles of School Hygiene given in this little book. Care 
of the eyes, light, ventilation, wells, water-closets, etc., are fully treated, 
with several illustrations. 

THIS LIST IS CONSTANTLY BEING ADDED TO. 
NOTICES. 

Central School Journal (Iowa. " The demand is for small books on great 
subjects." 

S. W. Journal of Education." Glad to see such valuable papers in such 
a cheap form." 

Va, School Journal." Teachers' manuals in the broad sense." 

Wisconsin School Journal " The series are deserving the highest com- 
mendation." 

Mucation (Boston). 1 ' Capital little books." 
ence (N. Y. City). " Contain materials that will prove suggestive to 
teachers." 

Progressive Teacher. "Valuable additions to a series already famous." 

School Herald (Chicago). "We must commend the good judgment in 
selecting these books." 

Educational Hecord (Canada)." Every progressive teacher ought t<? 
have them." 



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Welch's Teachers Psychology. 

A Treatise on the Intellectual Faculties, the Order of the 
Growth, and the Corresponding Series of Studies by which 
they are Educated. By the late A. S. Welch, Professor of 
Psychology, Iowa Agricultural College, formerly Pres. of 
the Mich. Normal School. Cloth, 12mo, 300 pp., $1.25; to 
teachers, $1; by mail, 12 cents extra. Special terms to 
Normal Schools and Reading Circles. 

A mastery of the branches to be taught was once thought to be 
an all-sufficient preparation for teaching. But it is now seen that 
there must be a knowledge of the mind that is to be trained. 
Psychology is the foundation of intelligent pedagogy. Prof. 
Welch undertook to write a book that should deal with mind- 
unfolding, as exhibited in the 
school-room. He shows what is 
meant by attending, memorizing, 
judging^ abstracting, imagining, 
classifying, etc., as it is done by 
the pupil over his text-books. First, 
there is the concept; then there is 
(1) gathering concepts, (2) storing 
concepts, (3) dividing concepts, 
(4) abstracting concepts, (5) build- 
ing concepts, (6) grouping con- 
cepts, (7) connecting concepts, 
(8) deriving concepts. Each of 
these is clearly explained and il- 
lustrated ; the reader instead of 
being bewildered over strange 
terms comprehends that imagina- 
tion means a building up of con- 
cepts, and so of the other terms. 
A most valuable part of the book 
is its application to practical education. How to train these 
powers that deal with the concept that is the question. There 
must be exercises to train the mind to gather, store, divide, abstract, 
build, group, connect, and derive concepts. The author shows 
what studies do this appropriately, and where there are mistakes 
made in the selection of studies. The book will prove a valuable 
one to the teacher who wishes to know the structure of the mind 
and the way to minister to its growth. It would seem that ^ at 
last a psychology had been written that would be a real aid, in- 
stead of a hindrance, to clear knowledge, 




DR. A. S. WELCH. 



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52 K L. KELLOGG & (70., NEW YOEK & CHICAGO. 



Woodbutt's Simple Experiments for the 

SCHOOL-ROOM. By Prof. JOHN F. WOODHULL, Prof, of 
Natural Science in the College for the Training of Teachers, 
New York City, author of ' ' Manual of Home-Made Appa- 
ratus." Cloth, 16mo. Price, 50 cents; to teachers, 40 cents; 
by mail, 5 cents extra. 

This book contains a series of simple, easily-made experiments, 
to perform which will aid the comprehension of every-day phe- 
nomena. They are really the very lessons given by the author in 
the Primary and Grammar Departments of the Model School in 
the College for the Training of Teachers, New York City. 

The apparatus needed for the experiments consists, for the most 
part, of such things as every teacher will find at hand in a school- 
room or kitchen. The experiments are so connected in logical 
order as to form a continuous exhibition of the phenomena of 
combustion. This book is not a science catechism. Its aim is to 
train the child's mind in habits of reasoning by experimental 
methods. 

These experiments should be made in every school of our 
country, and thus bring in a scientific method of dealing with 
nature. The present method of cramming children's minds with 
isolated facts of which they can have no adequate comprehension 
is a ruinous and unprofitable one. This book points out the 
method employed by the best teacJiers in the best schools. 

WHAT IT CONTAINS. 



I. Experiments with Paper. 
H. " Wood. 

III. a Candle. 

IV. " Kerosene. 
V. Kindling Temperature. 



VI. Air as an Agent in Combustion. 
VII. Products of Complete '* 
VIII. Currents of Air, etc. Ventila- 
IX. Oxygen of the Air. [tion. 

X. Chemical Changes. 



In all there are 91 experiments described, illustrated by 35 
engravings. 

Jas, H. Canfield, Univ. of Kans., Lawrence, says:" I desire to say most 
emphatically that the method pursued is the only true one in all school 
work. Its spirit is admirable. We need and must have far more of this 
instruction." 

J. C. Packard, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, says:" For many years shut up 
to the simplest forms of illustrative apparatus, I learned that the necessity 
was a blessing, since so much could be accomplished by home-made ap- 
paratus inexpensive and effective." 

Henry R, Kussell, Woodbury, N. J., Supt. of the Friends School: "Ad- 
mirable little book. It is just the kind of book we need," 

S. T. Button, Supt. Schools, New Haven, Ct. " Contains just the kind of 
help teachers need in adapting natural science to common schools." 



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E. L. KELLOGG & CO., NEW YORK & CHICAGO. 



Song Treasures. 



THE PRICE HAS BEEN 
GREATLY REDUCED. 



Compiled by AMOS M. KELLOGG, editor of the SCHOOL JOUR* 
NAL. Beautiful and durable postal-card manilla cover, 
printed in two colors, 64 pp. Price, 15 cents each; to teachers, 
12 cents; by mail, 2 cents extra. 30th thousand. Write for 
our special terms to schools for quantities. Special terms for use 
at Teachers' Institutes. 
This is a most * 

valuable col- J 

lection of mu- j 

sic for all 

schools and in- j 

stitutes. 

1. Most of I 
the pieces have 
been selected I 
by the teachers 
as favorites in | 
the schools. 
They are the 
ones the pupils 
love to sing. 
It contains 
nearly 100' 
pieces. 

2. All the pieces " have a ring to them ;" they are easily 
learned, and will not be forgotten. 

3. The themes and words are appropriate for young people. 
In these respects the work will be found to possess unusual merit. 
Nature, the Flowers, the Seasons, the Home, our Duties, our 
Creator, are entuned with beautiful music. 

4. Great ideas may find an entrance into the mind through 
music. Aspirations for the good, the beautiful, and the true are 
presented here in a musical form. 

5. Many of the words have been written especially for the 
book. One piece, " The Voice Within Us/' p. 57, is worth the 
price of the book. 

6. The titles here given show the teacher what we mean : 

Ask the Children, Beauty Everywhere, Be in Time, Cheerfulness, 
Christmas Bells, Days of Summer Glory, The Dearest Spot, Evening Song, 
Gentle Words, Going to School, Hold up the Right Hand, I Love the Merry, 
Merry Sunshine, Kind Deeds, Over in the Meadows, Our Happy School, 
Scatter the Germs of the Beautiful, Time to Walk, The Jolly Workers, The 
Teacher's Life, Tribute to Whitl ' 




UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
BERKELEY 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 

Books not returned on time are subject to a fine of 
50c per volume after the third day overdue, increasing 
to $1.00 per volume after the sixth day. Books not in 
demand may be renewed if application is made before 
expiration of loan period. 



FEB181918 







MAR 26 1940 



20 



NOV 2 9 



APR & 

AUG 10192! 

AUG 



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m 



YB 04^06